Longest word in the world….

Hi guys!!

I wanted to share with you, the longest word in the world. It is 189,918 characters long & takes more than 3 and a half hours to pronounce. It is the chemical name of the largest protein Titin.

methionylalanylthreonylserylarginylglycylalanylserylarginylcysteinylproly- larginylaspartylisoleucylalanylasparaginylvalylmethionylglutaminylarginyl- leucylglutaminylaspartylglutamylglutaminylglutamylisoleucylvalylglutaminy- llysylarginylthreonylphenylalanylthreonyllysyltryptophylisoleucylasparagi- nylserylhistidylleucylalanyllysylarginyllysylprolylprolylmethionylvalylva- lylaspartylaspartylleucylphenylalanylglutamylaspartylmethionyllysylaspart- ylglycylvalyllysylleucylleucylalanylleucylleucylglutamylvalylleucylserylg- lycylglutaminyllysylleucylprolylcysteinylglutamylglutaminylglycylarginyla- rginylmethionyllysylarginylisoleucylhistidylalanylvalylalanylasparaginyli- soleucylglycylthreonylalanylleucyllysylphenylalanylleucylglutamylglycylar- ginyllysylisoleucyllysylleucylvalylasparaginylisoleucylasparaginylserylth- reonylaspartylisoleucylalanylaspartylglycylarginylprolylserylisoleucylval- ylleucylglycylleucylmethionyltryptophylthreonylisoleucylisoleucylleucylty- rosylphenylalanylglutaminylisoleucylglutamylglutamylleucylthreonylserylas- paraginylleucylprolylglutaminylleucylglutaminylserylleucylserylserylseryl- alanylserylserylvalylaspartylserylisoleucylvalylserylserylglutamylthreony- lprolylserylprolylprolylseryllysylarginyllysylvalylthreonylthreonyllysyli- soleucylglutaminylglycylasparaginylalanyllysyllysylalanylleucylleucyllysy- ltryptophylvalylglutaminyltyrosylthreonylalanylglycyllysylglutaminylthreo- nylglycylisoleucylglutamylvalyllysylaspartylphenylalanylglycyllysylserylt- ryptophylarginylserylglycylvalylalanylphenylalanylhistidylserylvalylisole- ucylhistidylalanylisoleucylarginylprolylglutamylleucylvalylaspartylleucyl- glutamylthreonylvalyllysylglycylarginylserylasparaginylarginylglutamylasp- araginylleucylglutamylaspartylalanylphenylalanylthreonylisoleucylalanylgl- utamylthreonylglutamylleucylglycylisoleucylprolylarginylleucylleucylaspar- tylprolylglutamylaspartylvalylaspartylvalylaspartyllysylprolylaspartylglu- tamyllysylserylisoleucylmethionylthreonyltyrosylvalylalanylglutaminylphen- ylalanylleucyllysylhistidyltyrosylprolylaspartylisoleucylhistidylasparagi- nylalanylserylthreonylaspartylglycylglutaminylglutamylaspartylaspartylglu- tamylisoleucylleucylprolylglycylphenylalanylprolylserylphenylalanylalanyl- asparaginylserylvalylglutaminylasparaginylphenylalanyllysylarginylglutamy- laspartylarginylvalylisoleucylphenylalanyllysylglutamylmethionyllysylvaly- ltryptophylisoleucylglutamylglutaminylphenylalanylglutamylarginylaspartyl- leucylthreonylarginylalanylglutaminylmethionylvalylglutamylserylasparagin- ylleucylglutaminylaspartyllysyltyrosylglutaminylserylphenylalanyllysylhis- tidylphenylalanylarginylvalylglutaminyltyrosylglutamylmethionyllysylargin- yllysylglutaminylisoleucylglutamylhistidylleucylisoleucylglutaminylprolyl- leucylhistidylarginylaspartylglycyllysylleucylserylleucylaspartylglutamin- ylalanylleucylvalyllysylglutaminylseryltryptophylaspartylarginylvalylthre- onylserylarginylleucylphenylalanylaspartyltryptophylhistidylisoleucylglut- aminylleucylaspartyllysylserylleucylprolylalanylprolylleucylglycylthreony- lisoleucylglycylalanyltryptophylleucyltyrosylarginylalanylglutamylvalylal- anylleucylarginylglutamylglutamylisoleucylthreonylvalylglutaminylglutamin- ylvalylhistidylglutamylglutamylthreonylalanylasparaginylthreonylisoleucyl- glutaminylarginyllysylleucylglutamylglutaminylhistidyllysylaspartylleucyl- leucylglutaminylasparaginylthreonylaspartylalanylhistidyllysylarginylalan- ylphenylalanylhistidylglutamylisoleucyltyrosylarginylthreonylarginylseryl- valylasparaginylglycylisoleucylprolylvalylprolylprolylaspartylglutaminyll- eucylglutamylaspartylmethionylalanylglutamylarginylphenylalanylhistidylph- enylalanylvalylserylserylthreonylserylglutamylleucylhistidylleucylmethion- yllysylmethionylglutamylphenylalanylleucylglutamylleucyllysyltyrosylargin- ylleucylleucylserylleucylleucylvalylleucylalanylglutamylseryllysylleucyll- ysylseryltryptophylisoleucylisoleucyllysyltyrosylglycylarginylarginylglut- amylserylvalylglutamylglutaminylleucylleucylglutaminylasparaginyltyrosylv- alylserylphenylalanylisoleucylglutamylasparaginylseryllysylphenylalanylph- enylalanylglutamylglutaminyltyrosylglutamylvalylthreonyltyrosylglutaminyl- isoleucylleucyllysylglutaminylthreonylalanylglutamylmethionyltyrosylvalyl- lysylalanylaspartylglycylserylvalylglutamylglutamylalanylglutamylasparagi- nylvalylmethionyllysylphenylalanylmethionylasparaginylglutamylthreonylthr- eonylalanylglutaminyltryptophylarginylasparaginylleucylserylvalylglutamyl- valylarginylserylvalylarginylserylmethionylleucylglutamylglutamylvalyliso- leucylserylasparaginyltryptophylaspartylarginyltyrosylglycylasparaginylth- reonylvalylalanylserylleucylglutaminylalanyltryptophylleucylglutamylaspar- tylalanylglutamyllysylmethionylleucylasparaginylglutaminylserylglutamylas- paraginylalanyllysyllysylaspartylphenylalanylphenylalanylarginylasparagin- ylleucylprolylhistidyltryptophylisoleucylglutaminylglutaminylhistidylthre- onylalanylmethionylasparaginylaspartylalanylglycylasparaginylphenylalanyl- leucylisoleucylglutamylthreonylcysteinylaspartylglutamylmethionylvalylser- ylarginylaspartylleucyllysylglutaminylglutaminylleucylleucylleucylleucyla- sparaginylglycylarginyltryptophylarginylglutamylleucylphenylalanylmethion- ylglutamylvalyllysylglutaminyltyrosylalanylglutaminylalanylaspartylglutam- ylmethionylaspartylarginylmethionyllysyllysylglutamyltyrosylthreonylaspar- tylcysteinylvalylvalylthreonylleucylserylalanylphenylalanylalanylthreonyl- glutamylalanylhistidyllysyllysylleucylserylglutamylprolylleucylglutamylva- lylserylphenylalanylmethionylasparaginylvalyllysylleucylleucylisoleucylgl- utaminylaspartylleucylglutamylaspartylisoleucylglutamylglutaminylarginylv- alylprolylvalylmethionylaspartylalanylglutaminyltyrosyllysylisoleucylisol- eucylthreonyllysylthreonylalanylhistidylleucylisoleucylthreonyllysylgluta- mylserylprolylglutaminylglutamylglutamylglycyllysylglutamylmethionylpheny- lalanylalanylthreonylmethionylseryllysylleucyllysylglutamylglutaminylleuc- ylthreonyllysylvalyllysylglutamylcysteinyltyrosylserylprolylleucylleucylt- yrosylglutamylserylglutaminylglutaminylleucylleucylisoleucylprolylleucylg- lutamylglutamylleucylglutamyllysylglutaminylmethionylthreonylserylphenyla- lanyltyrosylaspartylserylleucylglycyllysylisoleucylasparaginylglutamyliso- leucylisoleucylthreonylvalylleucylglutamylarginylglutamylalanylglutaminyl- serylserylalanylleucylphenylalanyllysylglutaminyllysylhistidylglutaminylg- lutamylleucylleucylalanylcysteinylglutaminylglutamylasparaginylcysteinyll- ysyllysylthreonylleucylthreonylleucylisoleucylglutamyllysylglycylserylglu- taminylserylvalylglutaminyllysylphenylalanylvalylthreonylleucylserylaspar- aginylvalylleucyllysylhistidylphenylalanylaspartylglutaminylthreonylargin- ylleucylglutaminylarginylglutaminylisoleucylalanylaspartylisoleucylhistid- ylvalylalanylphenylalanylglutaminylserylmethionylvalyllysyllysylthreonylg- lycylaspartyltryptophyllysyllysylhistidylvalylglutamylthreonylasparaginyl- serylarginylleucylmethionyllysyllysylphenylalanylglutamylglutamylserylarg- inylalanylglutamylleucylglutamyllysylvalylleucylarginylisoleucylalanylglu- taminylglutamylglycylleucylglutamylglutamyllysylglycylaspartylprolylgluta- mylglutamylleucylleucylarginylarginylhistidylthreonylglutamylphenylalanyl- phenylalanylserylglutaminylleucylaspartylglutaminylarginylvalylleucylaspa- raginylalanylphenylalanylleucyllysylalanylcysteinylaspartylglutamylleucyl- threonylaspartylisoleucylleucylprolylglutamylglutaminylglutamylglutaminyl- glutaminylglycylleucylglutaminylglutamylalanylvalylarginyllysylleucylhist- idyllysylglutaminyltryptophyllysylaspartylleucylglutaminylglycylglutamyla- lanylprolyltyrosylhistidylleucylleucylhistidylleucyllysylisoleucylasparty- lvalylglutamyllysylasparaginylarginylphenylalanylleucylalanylserylvalylgl- utamylglutamylcysteinylarginylthreonylglutamylleucylaspartylarginylglutam- ylthreonyllysylleucylmethionylprolylglutaminylglutamylglycylserylglutamyl- lysylisoleucylisoleucyllysylglutamylhistidylarginylvalylphenylalanylpheny- lalanylserylaspartyllysylglycylprolylhistidylhistidylleucylcysteinylgluta- myllysylarginylleucylglutaminylleucylisoleucylglutamylglutamylleucylcyste- inylvalyllysylleucylprolylvalylarginylaspartylprolylvalylarginylaspartylt- hreonylprolylglycylthreonylcysteinylhistidylvalylthreonylleucyllysylgluta- mylleucylarginylalanylalanylisoleucylaspartylserylthreonyltyrosylarginyll- ysylleucylmethionylglutamylaspartylprolylaspartyllysyltryptophyllysylaspa- rtyltyrosylthreonylserylarginylphenylalanylserylglutamylphenylalanylseryl- seryltryptophylisoleucylserylthreonylasparaginylglutamylthreonylglutaminy- lleucyllysylglycylisoleucyllysylglycylglutamylalanylisoleucylaspartylthre- onylalanylasparaginylhistidylglycylglutamylvalyllysylarginylalanylvalylgl- utamylglutamylisoleucylarginylasparaginylglycylvalylthreonyllysylarginylg- lycylglutamylthreonylleucylseryltryptophylleucyllysylserylarginylleucylly- sylvalylleucylthreonylglutamylvalylserylserylglutamylasparaginylglutamyla- lanylglutaminyllysylglutaminylglycylaspartylglutamylleucylalanyllysylleuc- ylserylserylserylphenylalanyllysylalanylleucylvalylthreonylleucylleucylse- rylglutamylvalylglutamyllysylmethionylleucylserylasparaginylphenylalanylg- lycylaspartylcysteinylvalylglutaminyltyrosyllysylglutamylisoleucylvalylly- sylasparaginylserylleucylglutamylglutamylleucylisoleucylserylglycylseryll- ysylglutamylvalylglutaminylglutamylglutaminylalanylglutamyllysylisoleucyl- leucylaspartylthreonylglutamylasparaginylleucylphenylalanylglutamylalanyl- glutaminylglutaminylleucylleucylleucylhistidylhistidylglutaminylglutaminy- llysylthreonyllysylarginylisoleucylserylalanyllysyllysylarginylaspartylva- lylglutaminylglutaminylglutaminylisoleucylalanylglutaminylalanylglutaminy- lglutaminylglycylglutamylglycylglycylleucylprolylaspartylarginylglycylhis- tidylglutamylglutamylleucylarginyllysylleucylglutamylserylthreonylleucyla- spartylglycylleucylglutamylarginylserylarginylglutamylarginylglutaminylgl- utamylarginylarginylisoleucylglutaminylvalylthreonylleucylarginyllysyltry- ptophylglutamylarginylphenylalanylglutamylthreonylasparaginyllysylglutamy- lthreonylvalylvalylarginyltyrosylleucylphenylalanylglutaminylthreonylglyc- ylserylserylhistidylglutamylarginylphenylalanylleucylserylphenylalanylser- ylserylleucylglutamylserylleucylserylserylglutamylleucylglutamylglutaminy- lthreonyllysylglutamylphenylalanylseryllysylarginylthreonylglutamylseryli- soleucylalanylvalylglutaminylalanylglutamylasparaginylleucylvalyllysylglu- tamylalanylserylglutamylisoleucylprolylleucylglycylprolylglutaminylaspara- ginyllysylglutaminylleucylleucylglutaminylglutaminylglutaminylalanyllysyl- serylisoleucyllysylglutamylglutaminylvalyllysyllysylleucylglutamylasparty- lthreonylleucylglutamylglutamylaspartylisoleucyllysylthreonylmethionylglu- tamylmethionylvalyllysylthreonyllysyltryptophylaspartylhistidylphenylalan- ylglycylserylasparaginylphenylalanylglutamylthreonylleucylserylvalyltrypt- ophylisoleucylthreonylglutamyllysylglutamyllysylglutamylleucylasparaginyl- alanylleucylglutamylthreonylserylserylserylalanylmethionylaspartylmethion- ylglutaminylisoleucylserylglutaminylisoleucyllysylvalylthreonylisoleucylg- lutaminylglutamylisoleucylglutamylseryllysylleucylserylserylisoleucylvaly- lglycylleucylglutamylglutamylglutamylalanylglutaminylserylphenylalanylala- nylglutaminylphenylalanylvalylthreonylthreonylglycylglutamylserylalanylar- ginylisoleucyllysylalanyllysylleucylthreonylglutaminylisoleucylarginylarg- inyltyrosylglycylglutamylglutamylleucylarginylglutamylhistidylalanylgluta- minylcysteinylleucylglutamylglycylthreonylisoleucylleucylglycylhistidylle- ucylserylglutaminylglutaminylglutaminyllysylphenylalanylglutamylglutamyla- sparaginylleucylarginyllysylisoleucylglutaminylglutaminylserylvalylserylg- lutamylphenylalanylglutamylaspartyllysylleucylalanylvalylprolylisoleucyll- ysylisoleucylcysteinylserylserylalanylthreonylglutamylthreonyltyrosyllysy- lvalylleucylglutaminylglutamylhistidylmethionylaspartylleucylcysteinylglu- taminylalanylleucylglutamylserylleucylserylserylalanylisoleucylthreonylal- anylphenylalanylserylalanylserylalanylarginyllysylvalylvalylasparaginylar- ginylaspartylserylcysteinylvalylglutaminylglutamylalanylalanylalanylleucy- lglutaminylglutaminylglutaminyltyrosylglutamylaspartylisoleucylleucylargi- nylarginylalanyllysylglutamylarginylglutaminylthreonylalanylleucylglutamy- lasparaginylleucylleucylalanylhistidyltryptophylglutaminylarginylleucylgl- utamyllysylglutamylleucylserylserylphenylalanylleucylthreonyltryptophylle- ucylglutamylarginylglycylglutamylalanyllysylalanylserylserylprolylglutamy- lmethionylaspartylisoleucylserylalanylaspartylarginylvalyllysylvalylgluta- mylglycylglutamylleucylglutaminylleucylisoleucylglutaminylalanylleucylglu- taminylasparaginylglutamylvalylvalylserylglutaminylalanylserylphenylalany- ltyrosylseryllysylleucylleucylglutaminylleucyllysylglutamylserylleucylphe- nylalanylserylvalylalanylseryllysylaspartylaspartylvalyllysylmethionylmet- hionyllysylleucylhistidylleucylglutamylglutaminylleucylaspartylglutamylar- ginyltryptophylarginylaspartylleucylprolylglutaminylisoleucylisoleucylasp- araginyllysylarginylisoleucylasparaginylphenylalanylleucylglutaminylseryl- valylvalylalanylglutamylhistidylglutaminylglutaminylphenylalanylaspartylg- lutamylleucylleucylleucylserylphenylalanylserylvalyltryptophylisoleucylly- sylleucylphenylalanylleucylserylglutamylleucylglutaminylthreonylthreonyls- erylglutamylisoleucylserylisoleucylmethionylaspartylhistidylglutaminylval- ylalanylleucylthreonylarginylhistidyllysylaspartylhistidylalanylalanylglu- tamylvalylglutamylseryllysyllysylglycylglutamylleucylglutaminylserylleucy- lglutaminylglycylhistidylleucylalanyllysylleucylglycylserylleucylglycylar- ginylalanylglutamylaspartylleucylhistidylleucylleucylglutaminylglycyllysy- lalanylglutamylaspartylcysteinylphenylalanylglutaminylleucylphenylalanylg- lutamylglutamylalanylserylglutaminylvalylvalylglutamylarginylarginylgluta- minylleucylalanylleucylserylhistidylleucylalanylglutamylphenylalanylleucy- lglutaminylserylhistidylalanylserylleucylserylglycylisoleucylleucylarginy- lglutaminylleucylarginylglutaminylthreonylvalylglutamylalanylthreonylaspa- raginylserylmethionylasparaginyllysylasparaginylglutamylserylaspartylleuc- ylisoleucylglutamyllysylaspartylleucylasparaginylaspartylalanylleucylglut- aminylasparaginylalanyllysylalanylleucylglutamylserylalanylalanylvalylser- ylleucylaspartylglycylisoleucylleucylseryllysylalanylglutaminyltyrosylhis- tidylleucyllysylisoleucylglycylserylserylglutamylglutaminylarginylthreony- lserylcysteinylarginylalanylthreonylalanylaspartylglutaminylleucylcystein- ylglycylglutamylvalylglutamylarginylisoleucylglutaminylasparaginylleucyll- eucylglycylthreonyllysylglutaminylserylglutamylalanylaspartylalanylleucyl- alanylvalylleucyllysyllysylalanylphenylalanylglutaminylaspartylglutaminyl- lysylglutamylglutamylleucylleucyllysylserylisoleucylglutamylaspartylisole- ucylglutamylglutamylarginylthreonylaspartyllysylglutamylarginylleucyllysy- lglutamylprolylthreonylarginylglutaminylalanylleucylglutaminylglutaminyla- rginylleucylarginylvalylphenylalanylasparaginylglutaminylleucylglutamylas- partylglutamylleucylasparaginylserylhistidylglutamylhistidylglutamylleucy- lcysteinyltryptophylleucyllysylaspartyllysylalanyllysylglutaminylisoleucy- lalanylglutaminyllysylaspartylvalylalanylphenylalanylalanylprolylglutamyl- valylaspartylarginylglutamylisoleucylasparaginylarginylleucylglutamylvaly- lthreonyltryptophylaspartylaspartylthreonyllysylarginylleucylisoleucylhis- tidylglutamylasparaginylglutaminylglycylglutaminylcysteinylcysteinylglycy- lleucylisoleucylaspartylleucylmethionylarginylglutamyltyrosylglutaminylas- paraginylleucyllysylserylalanylvalylseryllysylvalylleucylglutamylasparagi- nylalanylserylserylvalylisoleucylvalylthreonylarginylthreonylthreonylisol- eucyllysylaspartylglutaminylglutamylaspartylleucyllysyltryptophylalanylph- enylalanylseryllysylhistidylglutamylthreonylalanyllysylasparaginyllysylme- thionylasparaginyltyrosyllysylglutaminyllysylaspartylleucylaspartylaspara- ginylphenylalanylthreonylseryllysylglycyllysylhistidylleucylleucylserylgl- utamylleucyllysyllysylisoleucylhistidylserylserylaspartylphenylalanylsery- lleucylvalyllysylthreonylaspartylmethionylglutamylserylthreonylvalylaspar- tyllysyltryptophylleucylaspartylvalylserylglutamyllysylleucylglutamylglut- amylasparaginylmethionylaspartylarginylleucylarginylvalylserylleucylseryl- isoleucyltryptophylaspartylaspartylvalylleucylserylthreonylarginylasparty- lglutamylisoleucylglutamylglycyltryptophylserylasparaginylasparaginylcyst- einylvalylprolylglutaminylmethionylalanylglutamylasparaginylisoleucylsery- lasparaginylleucylaspartylasparaginylhistidylleucylarginylalanylglutamylg- lutamylleucylleucyllysylglutamylphenylalanylglutamylserylglutamylvalyllys- ylasparaginyllysylalanylleucylarginylleucylglutamylglutamylleucylhistidyl- seryllysylvalylasparaginylaspartylleucyllysylglutamylleucylthreonyllysyla- sparaginylleucylglutamylthreonylprolylprolylaspartylleucylglutaminylpheny- lalanylisoleucylglutamylalanylaspartylleucylmethionylglutaminyllysylleucy- lglutamylhistidylalanyllysylglutamylisoleucylthreonylglutamylvalylalanyll- ysylglycylthreonylleucyllysylaspartylphenylalanylthreonylalanylglutaminyl- serylthreonylglutaminylvalylglutamyllysylphenylalanylisoleucylasparaginyl- aspartylisoleucylthreonylthreonyltryptophylphenylalanylthreonyllysylvalyl- glutamylglutamylserylleucylmethionylasparaginylcysteinylalanylglutaminyla- sparaginylglutamylthreonylcysteinylglutamylalanylleucyllysyllysylvalyllys- ylaspartylisoleucylglutaminyllysylglutamylleucylglutaminylserylglutaminyl- glutaminylserylasparaginylisoleucylserylserylthreonylglutaminylglutamylas- paraginylleucylasparaginylserylleucylcysteinylarginyllysyltyrosylhistidyl- serylalanylglutamylleucylglutamylserylleucylglycylarginylalanylmethionylt- hreonylglycylleucylisoleucyllysyllysylhistidylglutamylalanylvalylserylglu- taminylleucylcysteinylseryllysylthreonylglutaminylalanylserylleucylglutam- inylglutamylserylleucylglutamyllysylhistidylphenylalanylserylglutamylsery- lmethionylglutaminylglutamylphenylalanylglutaminylglutamyltryptophylpheny- lalanylleucylglycylalanyllysylalanylalanylalanyllysylglutamylserylserylas- partylarginylthreonylglycylaspartylseryllysylvalylleucylglutamylalanyllys- ylleucylhistidylaspartylleucylglutaminylasparaginylisoleucylleucylasparty- lserylvalylserylaspartylglycylglutaminylseryllysylleucylaspartylalanylval- ylthreonylglutaminylglutamylglycylglutaminylthreonylleucyltyrosylalanylhi- stidylleucylseryllysylglutaminylisoleucylvalylserylserylisoleucylglutamin- ylglutamylglutaminylisoleucylthreonyllysylalanylasparaginylglutamylglutam- ylphenylalanylglutaminylalanylphenylalanylleucyllysylglutaminylcysteinyll- eucyllysylaspartyllysylglutaminylalanylleucylglutaminylaspartylcysteinyla- lanylserylglutamylleucylglycylserylphenylalanylglutamylaspartylglutaminyl- histidylarginyllysylleucylasparaginylleucyltryptophylisoleucylhistidylglu- tamylmethionylglutamylglutamylarginylphenylalanylasparaginylthreonylgluta- mylasparaginylleucylglycylglutamylseryllysylglutaminylhistidylisoleucylpr- olylglutamyllysyllysylasparaginylglutamylvalylhistidyllysylvalylglutamylm- ethionylphenylalanylleucylglycylglutamylleucylleucylalanylalanylarginylgl- utamylserylleucylaspartyllysylleucylserylglutaminylarginylglycylglutaminy- lleucylleucylserylglutamylglutamylglycylhistidylglycylalanylglycylglutami- nylglutamylglycylarginylleucylcysteinylserylglutaminylleucylleucylthreony- lserylhistidylglutaminylasparaginylleucylleucylarginylmethionylthreonylly- sylglutamyllysylleucylarginylserylcysteinylglutaminylvalylalanylleucylglu- taminylglutamylhistidylglutamylalanylleucylglutamylglutamylalanylleucylgl- utaminylserylmethionyltryptophylphenylalanyltryptophylvalyllysylalanyliso- leucylglutaminylaspartylarginylleucylalanylcysteinylalanylglutamylserylth- reonylleucylglycylseryllysylaspartylthreonylleucylglutamyllysylarginylleu- cylserylglutaminylisoleucylglutaminylaspartylisoleucylleucylleucylmethion- yllysylglycylglutamylglycylglutamylvalyllysylleucylasparaginylmethionylal- anylisoleucylglycyllysylglycylglutamylglutaminylalanylleucylarginylseryls- erylasparaginyllysylglutamylglycylglutaminylarginylvalylisoleucylglutamin- ylthreonylglutaminylleucylglutamylthreonylleucyllysylglutamylvalyltryptop- hylalanylaspartylisoleucylmethionylserylserylserylvalylhistidylalanylglut- aminylserylthreonylleucylglutamylserylvalylisoleucylserylglutaminyltrypto- phylasparaginylaspartyltyrosylvalylglutamylarginyllysylasparaginylglutami- nylleucylglutamylglutaminyltryptophylmethionylglutamylserylvalylaspartylg- lutaminyllysylisoleucylglutamylhistidylprolylleucylglutaminylprolylglutam- inylprolylglycylleucyllysylglutamyllysylphenylalanylvalylleucylleucylaspa- rtylhistidylleucylglutaminylserylisoleucylleucylserylglutamylalanylglutam- ylaspartylhistidylthreonylarginylalanylleucylhistidylarginylleucylisoleuc- ylalanyllysylserylarginylglutamylleucyltyrosylglutamyllysylthreonylglutam- ylaspartylglutamylserylphenylalanyllysylaspartylthreonylalanylglutaminylg- lutamylglutamylleucyllysylthreonylglutaminylphenylalanylasparaginylaspart- ylisoleucylmethionylthreonylvalylalanyllysylglutamyllysylmethionylarginyl- lysylvalylglutamylglutamylisoleucylvalyllysylaspartylhistidylleucylmethio- nyltyrosylleucylaspartylalanylvalylhistidylglutamylphenylalanylthreonylas- partyltryptophylleucylhistidylserylalanyllysylglutamylglutamylleucylhisti- dylarginyltryptophylserylaspartylmethionylserylglycylaspartylserylserylal- anylthreonylglutaminyllysyllysylleucylseryllysylisoleucyllysylglutamylleu- cylisoleucylaspartylserylarginylglutamylisoleucylglycylalanylserylarginyl- leucylserylarginylvalylglutamylserylleucylalanylprolylglutamylvalyllysylg- lutaminylasparaginylthreonylthreonylalanylserylglycylcysteinylglutamylleu- cylmethionylhistidylthreonylglutamylmethionylglutaminylalanylleucylarginy- lalanylaspartyltryptophyllysylglutaminyltryptophylglutamylaspartylserylva- lylphenylalanylglutaminylthreonylglutaminylserylcysteinylleucylglutamylas- paraginylleucylvalylserylglutaminylmethionylalanylleucylserylglutamylglut- aminylglutamylphenylalanylserylglycylglutaminylvalylalanylglutaminylleucy- lglutamylglutaminylalanylleucylglutamylglutaminylphenylalanylserylalanyll- eucylleucyllysylthreonyltryptophylalanylglutaminylglutaminylleucylthreony- lleucylleucylglutamylglycyllysylasparaginylthreonylaspartylglutamylglutam- ylisoleucylvalylglutamylcysteinyltryptophylhistidyllysylglycylglutaminylg- lutamylisoleucylleucylaspartylalanylleucylglutaminyllysylalanylglutamylpr- olylarginylthreonylglutamylaspartylleucyllysylserylglutaminylleucylaspara- ginylglutamylleucylcysteinylarginylphenylalanylserylarginylaspartylleucyl- serylthreonyltyrosylserylglycyllysylvalylserylglycylleucylisoleucyllysylg- lutamyltyrosylasparaginylcysteinylleucylcysteinylleucylglutaminylalanylse- ryllysylglycylcysteinylglutaminylasparaginyllysylglutamylglutaminylisoleu- cylleucylglutaminylglutaminylarginylphenylalanylarginyllysylalanylphenyla- lanylarginylaspartylphenylalanylglutaminylglutaminyltryptophylleucylvalyl- asparaginylalanyllysylisoleucylthreonylthreonylalanyllysylcysteinylphenyl- alanylaspartylisoleucylprolylglutaminylasparaginylisoleucylserylglutamylv- alylserylthreonylserylleucylglutaminyllysylisoleucylglutaminylglutamylphe- nylalanylleucylserylglutamylserylglutamylasparaginylglycylglutaminylhisti- dyllysylleucylasparaginylmethionylmethionylleucylseryllysylglycylglutamyl- leucylleucylserylthreonylleucylleucylthreonyllysylglutamyllysylalanyllysy- lglycylisoleucylglutaminylalanyllysylvalylthreonylalanylalanyllysylglutam- ylaspartyltryptophyllysylasparaginylphenylalanylhistidylserylasparaginyll- eucylhistidylglutaminyllysylglutamylserylalanylleucylglutamylasparaginyll- eucyllysylisoleucylglutaminylmethionyllysylaspartylphenylalanylglutamylva- lylserylalanylglutamylprolylisoleucylglutaminylaspartyltryptophylleucylse- ryllysylthreonylglutamyllysylmethionylvalylhistidylglutamylserylserylaspa- raginylarginylleucyltyrosylaspartylleucylprolylalanyllysylarginylarginylg- lutamylglutaminylglutaminyllysylleucylglutaminylserylvalylleucylglutamylg- lutamylisoleucylhistidylcysteinyltyrosylglutamylprolylglutaminylleucylasp- araginylarginylleucyllysylglutamyllysylalanylglutaminylglutaminylleucyltr- yptophylglutamylglycylglutaminylalanylalanylseryllysylserylphenylalanylar- ginylhistidylarginylvalylserylglutaminylleucylserylserylglutaminyltyrosyl- leucylalanylleucylserylasparaginylleucylthreonyllysylglutamyllysylvalylse- rylarginylleucylaspartylarginylisoleucylvalylalanylglutamylhistidylaspara- ginylglutaminylphenylalanylserylleucylglycylisoleucyllysylglutamylleucylg- lutaminylaspartyltryptophylmethionylthreonylaspartylalanylisoleucylhistid- ylmethionylleucylaspartylseryltyrosylcysteinylhistidylprolylthreonylseryl- aspartyllysylserylvalylleucylaspartylserylarginylthreonylleucyllysylleucy- lglutamylalanylleucylleucylserylvalyllysylglutaminylglutamyllysylglutamyl- isoleucylglutaminylmethionyllysylmethionylisoleucylvalylthreonylarginylgl- ycylglutamylserylvalylleucylglutaminylasparaginylthreonylserylprolylgluta- mylglycylisoleucylprolylthreonylisoleucylglutaminylglutaminylglutaminylle- ucylglutaminylserylvalyllysylaspartylmethionyltryptophylalanylserylleucyl- leucylserylalanylglycylisoleucylarginylcysteinyllysylserylglutaminylleucy- lglutamylglycylalanylleucylseryllysyltryptophylthreonylseryltyrosylglutam- inylaspartylglycylvalylarginylglutaminylphenylalanylserylglycyltryptophyl- methionylaspartylserylmethionylglutamylalanylasparaginylleucylasparaginyl- glutamylserylglutamylarginylglutaminylhistidylalanylglutamylleucylarginyl- aspartyllysylthreonylthreonylmethionylleucylglycyllysylalanyllysylleucyll- eucylasparaginylglutamylglutamylvalylleucylseryltyrosylserylserylleucylle- ucylglutamylthreonylisoleucylglutamylvalyllysylglycylalanylglycylmethiony- lthreonylglutamylhistidyltyrosylvalylthreonylglutaminylleucylglutamylleuc- ylglutaminylaspartylleucylglutaminylglutamylarginyltyrosylarginylalanylis- oleucylglutaminylglutamylarginylalanyllysylglutamylalanylvalylthreonyllys- ylserylglutamyllysylleucylvalylarginylleucylhistidylglutaminylglutamyltyr- osylglutaminylarginylaspartylleucyllysylalanylphenylalanylglutamylvalyltr- yptophylleucylglycylglutaminylglutamylglutaminylglutamyllysylleucylaspart- ylglutaminyltyrosylserylvalylleucylglutamylglycylaspartylalanylhistidylth- reonylhistidylglutamylthreonylthreonylleucylarginylaspartylleucylglutamin- ylglutamylleucylglutaminylvalylhistidylcysteinylalanylglutamylglycylgluta- minylalanylleucylleucylasparaginylserylvalylleucylhistidylthreonylarginyl- glutamylaspartylvalylisoleucylprolylserylglycylisoleucylprolylglutaminyla- lanylglutamylaspartylarginylalanylleucylglutamylserylleucylarginylglutami- nylaspartyltryptophylglutaminylalanyltyrosylglutaminylhistidylarginylleuc- ylserylglutamylthreonylarginylthreonylglutaminylphenylalanylasparaginylas- paraginylvalylvalylasparaginyllysylleucylarginylleucylmethionylglutamylgl- utaminyllysylphenylalanylglutaminylglutaminylvalylaspartylglutamyltryptop- hylleucyllysylthreonylalanylglutamylglutamyllysylvalylserylprolylarginylt- hreonylarginylarginylglutaminylserylasparaginylarginylalanylthreonyllysyl- glutamylisoleucylglutaminylleucylhistidylglutaminylmethionyllysyllysyltry- ptophylhistidylglutamylglutamylvalylthreonylalanyltyrosylarginylaspartylg- lutamylvalylglutamylglutamylvalylglycylalanylarginylalanylglutaminylgluta- mylisoleucylleucylaspartylglutamylserylhistidylvalylasparaginylserylargin- ylmethionylglycylcysteinylglutaminylalanylthreonylglutaminylleucylthreony- lserylarginyltyrosylglutaminylalanylleucylleucylleucylglutaminylvalylleuc- ylglutamylglutaminylisoleucyllysylphenylalanylleucylglutamylglutamylgluta- mylisoleucylglutaminylserylleucylglutamylglutamylserylglutamylserylseryll- eucylserylseryltyrosylserylaspartyltryptophyltyrosylglycylserylthreonylhi- stidyllysylasparaginylphenylalanyllysylasparaginylvalylalanylthreonyllysy- lisoleucylaspartyllysylvalylaspartylthreonylvalylmethionylmethionylglycyl- lysyllysylleucyllysylthreonylleucylglutamylvalylleucylleucyllysylaspartyl- methionylglutamyllysylglycylhistidylserylleucylleucyllysylserylalanylargi- nylglutamyllysylglycylglutamylarginylalanylvalyllysyltyrosylleucylglutamy- lglutamylglycylglutamylalanylglutamylarginylleucylarginyllysylglutamyliso- leucylhistidylaspartylhistidylmethionylglutamylglutaminylleucyllysylgluta- mylleucylthreonylserylthreonylvalylarginyllysylglutamylhistidylmethionylt- hreonylleucylglutamyllysylglycylleucylhistidylleucylalanyllysylglutamylph- enylalanylserylaspartyllysylcysteinyllysylalanylleucylthreonylglutaminylt- ryptophylisoleucylalanylglutamyltyrosylglutaminylglutamylisoleucylleucylh- istidylvalylprolylglutamylglutamylprolyllysylmethionylglutamylleucyltyros- ylglutamyllysyllysylalanylglutaminylleucylseryllysyltyrosyllysylserylleuc- ylglutaminylglutaminylthreonylvalylleucylserylhistidylglutamylprolylseryl- valyllysylserylvalylarginylglutamyllysylglycylglutamylalanylleucylleucylg- lutamylleucylvalylglutaminylaspartylvalylthreonylleucyllysylaspartyllysyl- isoleucylaspartylglutaminylleucylglutaminylserylaspartyltyrosylglutaminyl- aspartylleucylcysteinylserylisoleucylglycyllysylglutamylhistidylvalylphen- ylalanylserylleucylglutamylalanyllysylvalyllysylaspartylhistidylglutamyla- spartyltyrosylasparaginylserylglutamylleucylglutaminylglutamylvalylglutam- yllysyltryptophylleucylleucylglutaminylmethionylserylglycylarginylleucylv- alylalanylprolylaspartylleucylleucylglutamylthreonylserylserylleucylgluta- mylthreonylisoleucylthreonylglutaminylglutaminylleucylalanylhistidylhisti- dyllysylalanylmethionylmethionylglutamylglutamylisoleucylalanylglycylphen- ylalanylglutamylaspartylarginylleucylasparaginylasparaginylleucylglutamin- ylmethionyllysylglycylaspartylthreonylleucylisoleucylglycylglutaminylcyst- einylalanylaspartylhistidylleucylglutaminylalanyllysylleucyllysylglutamin- ylasparaginylvalylhistidylalanylhistidylleucylglutaminylglycylthreonyllys- ylaspartylseryltyrosylserylalanylisoleucylcysteinylserylthreonylalanylglu- taminylarginylmethionyltyrosylglutaminylserylleucylglutamylhistidylglutam- ylleucylglutaminyllysylhistidylvalylserylarginylglutaminylaspartylthreony- 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lmethionylvalylserylglutaminylvalyllysylaspartylphenylalanylvalyllysyllys- ylleucylglutaminylseryllysylglutaminylalanylserylvalylasparaginylthreonyl- isoleucylisoleucylglutamyllysylvalylasparaginyllysylleucylthreonyllysylly- sylglutamylglutamylserylprolylglutamylhistidyllysylglutamylisoleucylaspar- aginylhistidylleucylasparaginylaspartylglutaminyltryptophylleucylaspartyl- leucylcysteinylarginylglutaminylserylasparaginylasparaginylleucylcysteiny- lleucylglutaminylarginylglutamylglutamylaspartylleucylglutaminylarginylth- reonylarginylaspartyltyrosylhistidylaspartylcysteinylmethionylasparaginyl- valylvalylglutamylvalylphenylalanylleucylglutamyllysylphenylalanylthreony- lthreonylglutamyltryptophylaspartylasparaginylleucylalanylarginylserylasp- artylalanylglutamylserylthreonylalanylvalylhistidylleucylglutamylalanylle- ucyllysyllysylleucylalanylleucylalanylleucylglutaminylglutamylarginyllysy- ltyrosylalanylisoleucylglutamylaspartylleucyllysylaspartylglutaminyllysyl- glutaminyllysylmethionylisoleucylglutamylhistidylleucylasparaginylleucyla- spartylaspartyllysylglutamylleucylvalyllysylglutamylglutaminylthreonylser- ylhistidylleucylglutamylglutaminylarginyltryptophylphenylalanylglutaminyl- leucylglutamylaspartylleucylisoleucyllysylarginyllysylisoleucylglutaminyl- valylserylvalylthreonylasparaginylleucylglutamylglutamylleucylasparaginyl- valylvalylglutaminylserylarginylphenylalanylglutaminylglutamylleucylmethi- onylglutamyltryptophylalanylglutamylglutamylglutaminylglutaminylprolylasp- araginylisoleucylalanylglutamylalanylleucyllysylglutaminylserylprolylprol- ylprolylaspartylmethionylalanylglutaminylasparaginylleucylleucylmethionyl- aspartylhistidylleucylalanylisoleucylcysteinylserylglutamylleucylglutamyl- alanyllysylglutaminylmethionylleucylleucyllysylserylleucylisoleucyllysyla- spartylalanylaspartylarginylvalylmethionylalanylaspartylleucylglycylleucy- lasparaginylglutamylarginylglutaminylvalylisoleucylglutaminyllysylalanyll- eucylserylaspartylalanylglutaminylserylhistidylvalylasparaginylcysteinyll- eucylserylaspartylleucylvalylglycylglutaminylarginylarginyllysyltyrosylle- ucylasparaginyllysylalanylleucylserylglutamyllysylthreonylglutaminylpheny- lalanylleucylmethionylalanylvalylphenylalanylglutaminylalanylthreonylsery- lglutaminylisoleucylglutaminylglutaminylhistidylglutamylarginyllysylisole- ucylmethionylphenylalanylarginylglutamylhistidylisoleucylcysteinylleucyll- eucylprolylaspartylaspartylvalylseryllysylglutaminylvalyllysylthreonylcys- teinyllysylserylalanylglutaminylalanylserylleucyllysylthreonyltyrosylglut- aminylasparaginylglutamylvalylthreonylglycylleucyltryptophylalanylglutami- nylglycylarginylglutamylleucylmethionyllysylglutamylvalylthreonylglutamyl- glutaminylglutamyllysylserylglutamylvalylleucylglycyllysylleucylglutaminy- lglutamylleucylglutaminylserylvalyltyrosylaspartylserylvalylleucylglutami- nyllysylcysteinylserylhistidylarginylleucylglutaminylglutamylleucylglutam- yllysylasparaginylleucylvalylserylarginyllysylhistidylphenylalanyllysylgl- utamylaspartylphenylalanylaspartyllysylalanylcysteinylhistidyltryptophyll- eucyllysylglutaminylalanylaspartylisoleucylvalylthreonylphenylalanylproly- lglutamylisoleucylasparaginylleucylmethionylasparaginylglutamylserylseryl- glutamylleucylhistidylthreonylglutaminylleucylalanyllysyltyrosylglutaminy- lasparaginylisoleucylleucylglutamylglutaminylserylprolylglutamyltyrosylgl- utamylasparaginylleucylleucylleucylthreonylleucylglutaminylarginylthreony- lglycylglutaminylthreonylisoleucylleucylprolylserylleucylasparaginylgluta- mylvalylaspartylhistidylseryltyrosylleucylserylglutamyllysylleucylasparag- inylalanylleucylprolylarginylglutaminylphenylalanylasparaginylvalylisoleu- cylvalylalanylleucylalanyllysylaspartyllysylphenylalanyltyrosyllysylvalyl- glutaminylglutamylalanylisoleucylleucylalanylarginyllysylglutamyltyrosyla- lanylserylleucylisoleucylglutamylleucylthreonylthreonylglutaminylserylleu- cylserylglutamylleucylglutamylalanylglutaminylphenylalanylleucylarginylme- thionylseryllysylvalylprolylthreonylaspartylleucylalanylvalylglutamylglut- amylalanylleucylserylleucylglutaminylaspartylglycylcysteinylarginylalanyl- isoleucylleucylaspartylglutamylvalylalanylglycylleucylglycylglutamylalany- lvalylaspartylglutamylleucylasparaginylglutaminyllysyllysylglutamylglycyl- phenylalanylarginylserylthreonylglycylglutaminylprolyltryptophylglutaminy- lprolylaspartyllysylmethionylleucylhistidylleucylvalylthreonylleucyltyros- ylhistidylarginylleucyllysylarginylglutaminylthreonylglutamylglutaminylar- ginylvalylserylleucylleucylglutamylaspartylthreonylthreonylserylalanyltyr- osylglutaminylglutamylhistidylglutamyllysylmethionylcysteinylglutaminylgl- utaminylleucylglutamylarginylglutaminylleucyllysylserylvalyllysylglutamyl- glutamylglutaminylseryllysylvalylasparaginylglutamylglutamylthreonylleucy- lprolylalanylglutamylglutamyllysylleucyllysylmethionyltyrosylhistidylsery- lleucylalanylglycylserylleucylglutaminylaspartylserylglycylisoleucylvalyl- leucyllysylarginylvalylthreonylisoleucylhistidylleucylglutamylaspartylleu- cylalanylprolylhistidylleucylaspartylprolylleucylalanyltyrosylglutamyllys- ylalanylarginylhistidylglutaminylisoleucylglutaminylseryltryptophylglutam- inylglycylglutamylleucyllysylleucylleucylthreonylserylalanylisoleucylglyc- ylglutamylthreonylvalylthreonylglutamylcysteinylglutamylserylarginylmethi- onylvalylglutaminylserylisoleucylaspartylphenylalanylglutaminylthreonylgl- utamylmethionylserylarginylserylleucylaspartyltryptophylleucylarginylargi- nylvalyllysylalanylglutamylleucylserylglycylprolylvalyltyrosylleucylaspar- tylleucylasparaginylleucylglutaminylaspartylisoleucylglutaminylglutamylgl- utamylisoleucylarginyllysylisoleucylglutaminylisoleucylhistidylglutaminyl- glutamylglutamylvalylglutaminylserylserylleucylarginylisoleucylmethionyla- sparaginylalanylleucylserylhistidyllysylglutamyllysylglutamyllysylphenyla- lanylthreonyllysylalanyllysylglutamylleucylisoleucylserylalanylaspartylle- ucylglutamylhistidylserylleucylalanylglutamylleucylserylglutamylleucylasp- artylglycylaspartylisoleucylglutaminylglutamylalanylleucylarginylthreonyl- arginylglutaminylalanylthreonylleucylthreonylglutamylisoleucyltyrosylsery- lglutaminylcysteinylglutaminylarginyltyrosyltyrosylglutaminylvalylphenyla- lanylglutaminylalanylalanylasparaginylaspartyltryptophylleucylglutamylasp- artylalanylglutaminylglutamylleucylleucylglutaminylleucylalanylglycylaspa- raginylglycylleucylaspartylvalylglutamylserylalanylglutamylglutamylaspara- ginylleucyllysylserylhistidylmethionylglutamylphenylalanylphenylalanylser- ylthreonylglutamylaspartylglutaminylphenylalanylhistidylserylasparaginyll- eucylglutamylglutamylleucylhistidylserylleucylvalylalanylthreonylleucylas- partylprolylleucylisoleucyllysylprolylthreonylglycyllysylglutamylaspartyl- leucylglutamylglutaminyllysylvalylalanylserylleucylglutamylleucylarginyls- erylglutaminylarginylmethionylserylarginylaspartylserylglycylalanylglutam- inylvalylaspartylleucylleucylglutaminylarginylcysteinylthreonylalanylglut- aminyltryptophylhistidylaspartyltyrosylglutaminyllysylalanylarginylglutam- ylglutamylvalylisoleucylglutamylleucylmethionylasparaginylaspartylthreony- lglutamyllysyllysylleucylserylglutamylphenylalanylserylleucylleucyllysylt- hreonylserylserylserylhistidylglutamylalanylglutamylglutamyllysylleucylse- rylglutamylhistidyllysylalanylleucylvalylserylvalylvalylasparaginylserylp- henylalanylhistidylglutamyllysylisoleucylvalylalanylleucylglutamylglutamy- llysylalanylserylglutaminylleucylglutamyllysylthreonylglycylasparaginylas- partylalanylseryllysylalanylthreonylleucylserylarginylserylmethionylthreo- nylthreonylvalyltryptophylglutaminylarginyltryptophylthreonylarginylleucy- larginylalanylvalylalanylglutaminylaspartylglutaminylglutamyllysylisoleuc- ylleucylglutamylaspartylalanylvalylaspartylglutamyltryptophylthreonylglyc- 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tyrosylleucylglycylasparaginylprolylthreonylisoleucylglutamylisoleucylasp- artylalanylglutaminylleucylglutamylglutamylleucylglutaminylisoleucylleucy- lleucylthreonylglutamylalanylthreonylasparaginylhistidylarginylglutaminyl- asparaginylisoleucylglutamyllysylmethionylalanylglutamylglutamylglutaminy- llysylglutamyllysyltyrosylleucylglycylleucyltyrosylthreonylisoleucylleucy- lprolylserylglutamylleucylserylleucylglutaminylleucylalanylglutamylvalyla- lanylleucylaspartylleucyllysylisoleucylarginylaspartylglutaminylisoleucyl- glutaminylaspartyllysylisoleucyllysylglutamylvalylglutamylglutaminylseryl- lysylalanylthreonylserylglutaminylglutamylleucylserylarginylglutaminyliso- leucylglutaminyllysylleucylalanyllysylaspartylleucylthreonylthreonylisole- ucylleucylthreonyllysylleucyllysylalanyllysylthreonylaspartylasparaginylv- alylvalylglutaminylalanyllysylthreonylaspartylglutaminyllysylvalylleucylg- lycylglutamylglutamylleucylaspartylglycylcysteinylasparaginylseryllysylle- 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valylalanylglutamylleucylglycylarginylglutamylthreonylglutamylglutamylleu- cylarginylglutaminylmethionylisoleucyllysylisoleucylarginylleucylglutamin- ylasparaginylleucylglutaminylaspartylalanylalanyllysylaspartylmethionylly- syllysylphenylalanylglutamylalanylglutamylleucyllysyllysylleucylglutaminy- lalanylalanylleucylglutamylglutaminylalanylglutaminylalanylthreonylleucyl- threonylserylprolylglutamylvalylglycylarginylleucylserylleucyllysylglutam- ylglutaminylleucylserylhistidylarginylglutaminylhistidylleucylleucylseryl- glutamylmethionylglutamylserylleucyllysylprolyllysylvalylglutaminylalanyl- valylglutaminylleucylcysteinylglutaminylserylalanylleucylarginylisoleucyl- prolylglutamylaspartylvalylvalylalanylserylleucylprolylleucylcysteinylhis- tidylalanylalanylleucylarginylleucylglutaminylglutamylglutamylalanylseryl- arginylleucylglutaminylhistidylthreonylalanylisoleucylglutaminylglutaminy- lcysteinylasparaginylisoleucylmethionylglutaminylalanylalanylvalylvalylgl- utaminyltyrosylglutamylglutaminyltyrosylglutamylglutaminylglutamylmethion- yllysylhistidylleucylglutaminylglutaminylleucylisoleucylglutamylglycylala- nylhistidylarginylglutamylisoleucylglutamylaspartyllysylprolylvalylalanyl- threonylserylasparaginylisoleucylglutaminylglutamylleucylglutaminylalanyl- glutaminylisoleucylserylarginylhistidylglutamylglutamylleucylalanylglutam- inyllysylisoleucyllysylglycyltyrosylglutaminylglutamylglutaminylisoleucyl- alanylserylleucylasparaginylseryllysylcysteinyllysylmethionylleucylthreon- ylmethionyllysylalanyllysylhistidylalanylthreonylmethionylleucylleucylthr- eonylvalylthreonylglutamylvalylglutamylglycylleucylalanylglutamylglycylth- reonylglutamylaspartylleucylaspartylglycylglutamylleucylleucylprolylthreo- nylprolylserylalanylhistidylprolylserylvalylvalylmethionylmethionylthreon- ylalanylglycylarginylcysteinylhistidylthreonylleucylleucylserylprolylvaly- lthreonylglutamylglutamylserylglycylglutamylglutamylglycylthreonylasparag- inylserylglutamylisoleucylserylserylprolylprolylalanylcysteinylarginylser- ylprolylserylprolylvalylalanylasparaginylthreonylaspartylalanylserylvalyl- asparaginylglutaminylaspartylisoleucylalanyltyrosyltyrosylglutaminylalany- lleucylserylalanylglutamylarginylleucylglutaminylthreonylaspartylalanylal- anyllysylisoleucylhistidylprolylserylthreonylserylalanylserylglutaminylgl- utamylphenylalanyltyrosylglutamylprolylglycylleucylglutamylprolylserylala- nylthreonylalanyllysylleucylglycylaspartylleucylglutaminylarginylseryltry- ptophylglutamylthreonylleucyllysylasparaginylvalylisoleucylserylglutamyll- ysylglutaminylarginylthreonylleucyltyrosylglutamylalanylleucylglutamylarg- inylglutaminylglutaminyllysyltyrosylglutaminylaspartylserylleucylglutamin- ylserylisoleucylserylthreonyllysylmethionylglutamylalanylisoleucylglutamy- lleucyllysylleucylserylglutamylserylprolylglutamylprolylglycylarginylsery- lprolylglutamylserylglutaminylmethionylalanylglutamylhistidylglutaminylal- anylleucylmethionylaspartylglutamylisoleucylleucylmethionylleucylglutamin- ylaspartylglutamylisoleucylasparaginylglutamylleucylglutaminylserylseryll- eucylalanylglutamylglutamylleucylvalylserylglutamylserylcysteinylglutamyl- alanylaspartylprolylalanylglutamylglutaminylleucylalanylleucylglutaminyls- erylthreonylleucylthreonylvalylleucylalanylglutamylarginylmethionylserylt- hreonylisoleucylarginylmethionyllysylalanylserylglycyllysylarginylglutami- nylleucylleucylglutamylglutamyllysylleucylasparaginylaspartylglutaminylle- ucylglutamylglutamylglutaminylarginylglutaminylglutamylglutaminylalanylle- ucylglutaminylarginyltyrosylarginylcysteinylglutamylalanylaspartylglutamy- lleucylaspartylseryltryptophylleucylleucylserylthreonyllysylalanylthreony- lleucylaspartylthreonylalanylleucylserylprolylprolyllysylglutamylprolylme- thionylaspartylmethionylglutamylalanylglutaminylleucylmethionylaspartylcy- steinylglutaminylasparaginylmethionylleucylvalylglutamylisoleucylglutamyl- glutaminyllysylvalylvalylalanylleucylserylglutamylleucylserylvalylhistidy- lasparaginylglutamylasparaginylleucylleucylleucylglutamylglycyllysylalany- lhistidylthreonyllysylaspartylglutamylalanylglutamylglutaminylleucylalany- lglycyllysylleucylarginylarginylleucyllysylglycylserylleucylleucylglutamy- lleucylglutaminylarginylalanylleucylhistidylaspartyllysylglutaminylleucyl- asparaginylmethionylglutaminylglycylthreonylalanylglutaminylglutamyllysyl- glutamylglutamylserylaspartylvalylaspartylleucylthreonylalanylthreonylglu- taminylserylprolylglycylvalylglutaminylglutamyltryptophylleucylalanylglut- aminylalanylarginylthreonylthreonyltryptophylthreonylglutaminylglutaminyl- arginylglutaminylserylserylleucylglutaminylglutaminylglutaminyllysylgluta- mylleucylglutamylglutaminylglutamylleucylalanylglutamylglutaminyllysylser- ylleucylleucylarginylserylvalylalanylserylarginylglycylglutamylglutamylis- oleucylleucylisoleucylglutaminylhistidylserylalanylalanylglutamylthreonyl- serylglycylaspartylalanylglycylglutamyllysylprolylaspartylvalylleucylsery- lglutaminylglutamylleucylglycylmethionylglutamylglycylglutamyllysylseryls- erylalanylglutamylaspartylglutaminylmethionylarginylmethionyllysyltryptop- hylglutamylserylleucylhistidylglutaminylglutamylphenylalanylserylthreonyl- lysylglutaminyllysylleucylleucylglutaminylasparaginylvalylleucylglutamylg- lutaminylglutamylglutaminylglutamylglutaminylvalylleucyltyrosylserylargin- ylprolylasparaginylarginylleucylleucylserylglycylvalylprolylleucyltyrosyl- lysylglycylaspartylvalylprolylthreonylglutaminylaspartyllysylserylalanylv- alylthreonylserylleucylleucylaspartylglycylleucylasparaginylglutaminylala- nylphenylalanylglutamylglutamylvalylserylserylglutaminylserylglycylglycyl- alanyllysylarginylglutaminylserylisoleucylhistidylleucylglutamylglutaminy- llysylleucyltyrosylaspartylglycylvalylserylalanylthreonylserylthreonyltry- ptophylleucylaspartylaspartylvalylglutamylglutamylarginylleucylphenylalan- 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ucylglutaminylglutaminylalanylglutamylaspartylglycylleucyllysylglutamylph- enylalanylaspartylalanylglycylisoleucylisoleucylglutamylleucyllysylarginy- larginylglycylaspartyllysylleucylglutaminylvalylglutamylglutaminylprolyls- erylmethionylglutaminylglutamylleucylseryllysylleucylglutaminylaspartylme- thionyltyrosylaspartylglutamylleucylmethionylmethionylisoleucylisoleucylg- lycylserylarginylarginylserylglycylleucylasparaginylglutaminylasparaginyl- leucylthreonylleucyllysylserylglutaminyltyrosylglutamylarginylalanylleucy- lglutaminylaspartylleucylalanylaspartylleucylleucylglutamylthreonylglycyl- glutaminylglutamyllysylmethionylalanylglycylaspartylglutaminyllysylisoleu- cylisoleucylvalylserylseryllysylglutamylglutamylisoleucylglutaminylglutam- inylleucylleucylaspartyllysylhistidyllysylglutamyltyrosylphenylalanylglut- aminylglycylleucylglutamylserylhistidylmethionylisoleucylleucylthreonylgl- utamylthreonylleucylphenylalanylarginyllysylisoleucylisoleucylserylphenyl- alanylalanylvalylglutaminyllysylglutamylthreonylglutaminylphenylalanylhis- tidylthreonylglutamylleucylmethionylalanylglutaminylalanylserylalanylvaly- lleucyllysylarginylalanylhistidyllysylarginylglycylvalylglutamylleucylglu- tamyltyrosylisoleucylleucylglutamylthreonyltryptophylserylhistidylleucyla- spartylglutamylaspartylglutaminylglutaminylglutamylleucylserylarginylglut- aminylleucylglutamylvalylvalylglutamylserylserylisoleucylprolylserylvalyl- glycylleucylvalylglutamylglutamylasparaginylglutamylaspartylarginylleucyl- isoleucylaspartylarginylisoleucylthreonylleucyltyrosylglutaminylhistidyll- eucyllysylserylserylleucylasparaginylglutamyltyrosylglutaminylprolyllysyl- leucyltyrosylglutaminylvalylleucylaspartylaspartylglycyllysylarginylleucy- lleucylisoleucylserylisoleucylserylcysteinylserylaspartylleucylglutamylse- rylglutaminylleucylasparaginylglutaminylleucylglycylglutamylcysteinyltryp- tophylleucylserylasparaginylthreonylasparaginyllysylmethionylseryllysylgl- utamylleucylhistidylarginylleucylglutamylthreonylisoleucylleucyllysylhist- idyltryptophylthreonylarginyltyrosylglutaminylserylglutamylserylalanylasp- artylleucylisoleucylhistidyltryptophylleucylglutaminylserylalanyllysylasp- artylarginylleucylglutamylphenylalanyltryptophylthreonylglutaminylglutami- nylserylvalylthreonylvalylprolylglutaminylglutamylleucylglutamylmethionyl- valylarginylaspartylhistidylleucylasparaginylalanylphenylalanylleucylglut- amylphenylalanylseryllysylglutamylvalylaspartylalanylglutaminylserylseryl- leucyllysylserylserylvalylleucylserylthreonylglycylasparaginylglutaminyll- eucylleucylarginylleucyllysyllysylvalylaspartylthreonylalanylthreonylleuc- ylarginylserylglutamylleucylserylarginylisoleucylaspartylserylglutaminylt- ryptophylthreonylaspartylleucylleucylthreonylasparaginylisoleucylprolylal- anylvalylglutaminylglutamyllysylleucylhistidylglutaminylleucylglutaminylm- ethionylaspartyllysylleucylprolylserylarginylhistidylalanylisoleucylseryl- glutamylvalylmethionylseryltryptophylisoleucylserylleucylmethionylglutamy- lasparaginylvalylisoleucylglutaminyllysylaspartylglutamylaspartylasparagi- nylisoleucyllysylasparaginylserylisoleucylglycyltyrosyllysylalanylisoleuc- ylhistidylglutamyltyrosylleucylglutaminyllysyltyrosyllysylglycylphenylala- nyllysylisoleucylaspartylisoleucylasparaginylcysteinyllysylglutaminylleuc- ylthreonylvalylaspartylphenylalanylvalylasparaginylglutaminylserylvalylle- ucylglutaminylisoleucylserylserylglutaminylaspartylvalylglutamylseryllysy- larginylserylaspartyllysylthreonylaspartylphenylalanylalanylglutamylgluta- minylleucylglycylalanylmethionylasparaginyllysylseryltryptophylglutaminyl- isoleucylleucylglutaminylglycylleucylvalylthreonylglutamyllysylisoleucylg- lutaminylleucylleucylglutamylglycylleucylleucylglutamylseryltryptophylser- ylglutamyltyrosylglutamylasparaginylasparaginylvalylglutaminylcysteinylle- ucyllysylthreonyltryptophylphenylalanylglutamylthreonylglutaminylglutamyl- lysylarginylleucyllysylglutaminylglutaminylhistidylarginylisoleucylglycyl- aspartylglutaminylalanylserylvalylglutaminylasparaginylalanylleucyllysyla- spartylcysteinylglutaminylaspartylleucylglutamylaspartylleucylisoleucylly- sylalanyllysylglutamyllysylglutamylvalylglutamyllysylisoleucylglutamylglu- taminylasparaginylglycylleucylalanylleucylisoleucylglutaminylasparaginyll- ysyllysylglutamylaspartylvalylserylserylisoleucylvalylmethionylserylthreo- nylleucylarginylglutamylleucylglycylglutaminylthreonyltryptophylalanylasp- araginylleucylaspartylhistidylmethionylvalylglycylglutaminylleucyllysylis- oleucylleucylleucyllysylserylvalylleucylaspartylglutaminyltryptophylseryl- serylhistidyllysylvalylalanylphenylalanylaspartyllysylisoleucylasparaginy- lseryltyrosylleucylmethionylglutamylalanylarginyltyrosylserylleucylseryla- rginylphenylalanylarginylleucylleucylthreonylglycylserylleucylglutamylala- nylvalylglutaminylvalylglutaminylvalylaspartylasparaginylleucylglutaminyl- asparaginylleucylglutaminylaspartylaspartylleucylglutamyllysylglutaminylg- lutamylarginylserylleucylglutaminyllysylphenylalanylglycylserylisoleucylt- hreonylasparaginylglutaminylleucylleucyllysylglutamylcysteinylhistidylpro- lylprolylvalylthreonylglutamylthreonylleucylthreonylasparaginylthreonylle- ucyllysylglutamylvalylasparaginylmethionylarginyltryptophylasparaginylasp- araginylleucylleucylglutamylglutamylisoleucylalanylglutamylglutaminylleuc- ylglutaminylserylseryllysylalanylleucylleucylglutaminylleucyltryptophylgl- utaminylarginyltyrosyllysylaspartyltyrosylseryllysylglutaminylcysteinylal- anylserylthreonylvalylglutaminylglutaminylglutaminylglutamylaspartylargin- ylthreonylasparaginylglutamylleucylleucyllysylalanylalanylthreonylasparag- inyllysylaspartylisoleucylalanylaspartylaspartylglutamylvalylalanylthreon- yltryptophylisoleucylglutaminylaspartylcysteinylasparaginylaspartylleucyl- leucyllysylglycylleucylglycylthreonylvalyllysylaspartylserylleucylphenyla- lanylphenylalanylleucylhistidylglutamylleucylglycylglutamylglutaminylleuc- yllysylglutaminylglutaminylvalylaspartylalanylserylalanylalanylserylalany- lisoleucylglutaminylserylaspartylglutaminylleucylserylleucylserylglutamin- ylhistidylleucylcysteinylalanylleucylglutamylglutaminylalanylleucylcystei- nyllysylglutaminylglutaminylthreonylserylleucylglutaminylalanylglycylvaly- lleucylaspartyltyrosylglutamylthreonylphenylalanylalanyllysylserylleucylg- lutamylalanylleucylglutamylalanyltryptophylisoleucylvalylglutamylalanylgl- utamylglutamylisoleucylleucylglutaminylglycylglutaminylaspartylprolylsery- lhistidylserylserylaspartylleucylserylthreonylisoleucylglutaminylglutamyl- arginylmethionylglutamylglutamylleucyllysylglycylglutaminylmethionylleucy- llysylphenylalanylserylserylmethionylalanylprolylaspartylleucylaspartylar- ginylleucylasparaginylglutamylleucylglycyltyrosylarginylleucylprolylleucy- lasparaginylaspartyllysylglutamylisoleucyllysylarginylmethionylglutaminyl- asparaginylleucylasparaginylarginylhistidyltryptophylserylleucylisoleucyl- serylserylglutaminylthreonylthreonylglutamylarginylphenylalanylseryllysyl- leucylglutaminylserylphenylalanylleucylleucylglutaminylhistidylglutaminyl- threonylphenylalanylleucylglutamyllysylcysteinylglutamylthreonyltryptophy- lmethionylglutamylphenylalanylleucylvalylglutaminylthreonylglutamylglutam- inyllysylleucylalanylvalylglutamylisoleucylserylglycylasparaginyltyrosylg- lutaminylhistidylleucylleucylglutamylglutaminylglutaminylarginylalanylhis- tidylglutamylleucylphenylalanylglutaminylalanylglutamylmethionylphenylala- nylserylarginylglutaminylglutaminylisoleucylleucylhistidylserylisoleucyli- soleucylisoleucylaspartylglycylglutaminylarginylleucylleucylglutamylgluta- minylglycylglutaminylvalylaspartylaspartylarginylaspartylglutamylphenylal- anylasparaginylleucyllysylleucylthreonylleucylleucylserylasparaginylgluta- minyltryptophylglutaminylglycylvalylisoleucylarginylarginylalanylglutamin- ylglutaminylarginylarginylglycylisoleucylisoleucylaspartylserylglutaminyl- isoleucylarginylglutaminyltryptophylglutaminylarginyltyrosylarginylglutam- ylmethionylalanylglutamyllysylleucylarginyllysyltryptophylleucylvalylglut- amylvalylseryltyrosylleucylprolylmethionylserylglycylleucylglycylserylval- ylprolylisoleucylprolylleucylglutaminylglutaminylalanylarginylthreonylleu- cylphenylalanylaspartylglutamylvalylglutaminylphenylalanyllysylglutamylly- sylvalylphenylalanylleucylarginylglutaminylglutaminylglycylseryltyrosylis- oleucylleucylthreonylvalylglutamylalanylglycyllysylglutaminylleucylleucyl- leucylserylalanylaspartylserylglycylalanylglutamylalanylalanylleucylgluta- minylalanylglutamylleucylalanylglutamylisoleucylglutaminylglutamyllysyltr- yptophyllysylserylalanylserylmethionylarginylleucylglutamylglutamylglutam- inyllysyllysyllysylleucylalanylphenylalanylleucylleucyllysylaspartyltrypt- ophylglutamyllysylcysteinylglutamyllysylglycylisoleucylalanylaspartylsery- lleucylglutamyllysylleucylarginylthreonylphenylalanyllysyllysyllysylleucy- lserylglutaminylserylleucylprolylaspartylhistidylhistidylglutamylglutamyl- leucylhistidylalanylglutamylglutaminylmethionylarginylcysteinyllysylgluta- mylleucylglutamylasparaginylalanylvalylglycylseryltryptophylthreonylaspar- tylaspartylleucylthreonylglutaminylleucylserylleucylleucyllysylaspartylth- reonylleucylserylalanyltyrosylisoleucylserylalanylaspartylaspartylisoleuc- ylserylisoleucylleucylasparaginylglutamylarginylvalylglutamylleucylleucyl- glutaminylarginylglutaminyltryptophylglutamylglutamylleucylcysteinylhisti- dylglutaminylleucylserylleucylarginylarginylglutaminylglutaminylisoleucyl- glycylglutamylarginylleucylasparaginylglutamyltryptophylalanylvalylphenyl- alanylserylglutamyllysylasparaginyllysylglutamylleucylcysteinylglutamyltr- yptophylleucylthreonylglutaminylmethionylglutamylseryllysylvalylserylglut- aminylasparaginylglycylaspartylisoleucylleucylisoleucylglutamylglutamylme- thionylisoleucylglutamyllysylleucyllysyllysylaspartyltyrosylglutaminylglu- tamylglutamylisoleucylalanylisoleucylalanylglutaminylglutamylasparaginyll- ysylisoleucylglutaminylleucylglutaminylglutaminylmethionylglycylglutamyla- rginylleucylalanyllysylalanylserylhistidylglutamylseryllysylalanylserylgl- utamylisoleucylglutamyltyrosyllysylleucylglycyllysylvalylasparaginylaspar- tylarginyltryptophylglutaminylhistidylleucylleucylaspartylleucylisoleucyl- alanylalanylarginylvalyllysyllysylleucyllysylglutamylthreonylleucylvalyla- lanylvalylglutaminylglutaminylleucylaspartyllysylasparaginylmethionylsery- lserylleucylarginylthreonyltryptophylleucylalanylhistidylisoleucylglutamy- lserylglutamylleucylalanyllysylprolylisoleucylvalyltyrosylaspartylserylcy- steinylasparaginylserylglutamylglutamylisoleucylglutaminylarginyllysylleu- cylasparaginylglutamylglutaminylglutaminylglutamylleucylglutaminylarginyl- aspartylisoleucylglutamyllysylhistidylserylthreonylglycylvalylalanylseryl- valylleucylasparaginylleucylcysteinylglutamylvalylleucylleucylhistidylasp- artylcysteinylaspartylalanylcysteinylalanylthreonylaspartylalanylglutamyl- cysteinylaspartylserylisoleucylglutaminylglutaminylalanylthreonylarginyla- sparaginylleucylaspartylarginylarginyltryptophylarginylasparaginylisoleuc- ylcysteinylalanylmethionylserylmethionylglutamylarginylarginylleucyllysyl- isoleucylglutamylglutamylthreonyltryptophylarginylleucyltryptophylglutami- nyllysylphenylalanylleucylaspartylaspartyltyrosylserylarginylphenylalanyl- glutamylaspartyltryptophylleucyllysylserylserylglutamylarginylthreonylala- nylalanylphenylalanylprolylserylserylserylglycylvalylisoleucyltyrosylthre- onylvalylalanyllysylglutamylglutamylleucyllysyllysylphenylalanylglutamyla- lanylphenylalanylglutaminylarginylglutaminylvalylhistidylglutamylcysteiny- lleucylthreonylglutaminylleucylglutamylleucylisoleucylasparaginyllysylglu- taminyltyrosylarginylarginylleucylalanylarginylglutamylasparaginylarginyl- 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Good day guys!

Science video post: Chemicals

Hi guys!!!

If  you have connection with my  account you might have seen my videos on Chemicals and Chemical Changes. Today, I’m going to explain these in detail. Actually,  if you have observed science, you might think that Chemistry is the favorite subject of the students as we can like..”play” with the substances and see what change happens. Many people might ask the etymology (word evolution), it is derived from ‘alchemy’ from Arabic ‘الكيمياء’ al-keemee’a, which again derives from Greek, “χημία” which means the study of different natural substances, from which artificial things can be made.

There are almost 117 known ‘elements’ in the periodic table. The reason why I bolded the word ‘element’ is to remove the confusion between compounds and elements. The chemicals are not evolved from any other element but exists on its own. For example, Hydrogen (H) cannot be evolved from oxygen (O). There are substances that always exist in many atoms of one element as they have to adjust the number of electrons in the atom. Speaking of the atom, let’s analyze its structure of an atom….

Protons & Neutrons

Protons & Neutrons are the main things that are mainly of +ve and neutral charges respectively. As protons have a positive charge, (same charge), they are more likely to repel against each other as same as the law of magnetism which says that “opposite charges attract and same charges repel”. It is due to the electric charges. To prevent the strong repulsion which can result in the destruction of the whole atom, neutral charges are placed in between the atoms called neutrons. The number of protons and neutrons are equal. Inside a proton, there is are quarks which can be divided into 6 flavors : up, down, charm, strange, top and bottom which can be given different colors. Each quark is joined by a gluon. There are divided into the category of particle physics called fermionic. They also have electric charge, color charge and spinning power. There are 2 quarks above and 1 below. This theory was created by Murray-Gell-Mann George Zweig in 1964. The protons and neutrons are known as the nucleus.

Three colored balls (symbolizing quarks) connected pairwise by springs (symbolizing gluons), all inside a gray circle (symbolizing a proton). The colors of the balls are red, green, and blue, to parallel each quark's color charge. The red and blue balls are labeled "u" (for "up" quark) and the green one is labeled "d" (for "down" quark).

Electrons

Electrons are the main structures that are rotating outside the nucleus of the atom. They have a -ve charge and are the main causes of electricity. They are described as restless as they move restlessly around the atom. They are also equal to the protons as if to make the total charge of the atom neutral. They have very awesome properties like electromagnetism!!! Electromagnetism is a property where the electricity is used to make magnetism. The facility can be seen in usual door bells which have the typical ‘ting’ sound.
Picture1

When you click on the button, a negative charge is sent down the wires which is charged up by a battery and goes up to a plate to fill it up with a negative charge. The plate attracts a positively charged hammer and the hammer swings with so much force that a sound is formed. When you see that the electricity that the electricity from the battery reached the plate, there was magnetism. This is called electromagnetism.

Shells of an atom

An atom contains shells with a certain number of electrons. The list is given below.

If any of a count is missing, an atom joins another atom with the desirable amount of electrons which is called covalent bonding.

To know more about these, watch the video-

How would you react after seeing this?

Some ferocious chemical might be just playing around……

IMAGINARY CHEMICAL HEALTH- 4, the chemical is very dangerous and can cause very major injury or death on very simple contact

INFLAMMABILITY- 4, the chemical is very inflammable and can catch fire in seconds in contact with the atmosphere

REACTIVITY- 4, the chemical is very instable and has even higher reactivity than potassium, the most reactive chemical in the world

W– The chemical, due to its high instability, can react to water in a very weird way

OX- Oxidizer, it can increase the electrons in the atom

Let’s read a chips packet and analyze these chemicals…

Malic Acid-C4H6O5

It is a chemical naturally found in apples which can be used as a food additive which can increase the sourness of  a food item.

Lactic Acid- C12H22O11

This is an acid mainly found in milk. It is derived from Glucose.

Citric Acid- C6H8O7

It is also a sour additive which is found naturally in orange, lemon and other citrus fruits.

Maltodextrin- (2<n<20)C6nH(10n+2)O(5n+1) 

It is a polysaccharide which is made from corn using partial hydrolysis, a process which involves the breaking down a molecule by water.

To learn about some important chemicals, check out the video!!!

HOTS Questions

  1. Which of these chemicals can be used in a hot air balloon? Give reason.

a) Hydrogen, b) Xeon, c) Oxygen, d) Helium

2.  Which is the lightest metal in the periodic table? What is its weight?

3.  Taste these things….Are they acid or basic?

a) Grapes, b) Soap, c) Orange

4. If water is acid, it helps in the growth of germs, while if it is alkaline [basic] it is good for your body.

If possible, try to take a pH paper and test the pH of the water and judge which is the best brand of water.

5. How does curdling of milk happen?

Put answers in the comments below!!!

Science Video post: SPREADING#VIRUS

Hi guys,

You know..I’m a resident of the United Arab Emirates in Fujairah and I get the newspaper called GulfNews which is printed from the big city of Dubai. Let me tell you 3 stories:

In the year 2014, there were so much news about the Saudi Arabian virus MersCoV (Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus) has been in the #’s of Twitter & Instagram. Many Muslim people who go to the Hajj in the western holy city of Makkah-Al-Munawwarah & the city of Al-Madinathu-Al-Munawwara had to be cautious as there was a lot of virus in there as there are lot of sandstorms and camels (from where the flu is said to be originated from but actually these animals are immune to the flu). Many people are residents in the UAE and the virus has spread through the Saudi Arabian borders only. After just 1 year in May 2015, when I flipped the pages of the newspaper, I saw many South Koreans wearing masks. As I read the headline, it was a news of MersCoV spreading to South Korea mainly in the metropolitan region of Seoul. Suggestons say that UAE & Saudi Arabia are big business partners of the country and maybe South Korean Businessmen have travelled from these countries to Seoul and spread the virus over there. Many people had Asthma and had even fallen to death due to breath loss. The largest province in the country, the Eastern province with 54 Mers-CoV infections and 20 fatalities while The Northern and Southern Borders of the country has none.

In late 2014, I heard cases  of Ebola in Liberia,Sierra Leone, and other West African countries as they have less health infrastructure and virus prevention.Many nurses have died by getting the virus from the patients and died. Organ failure, nausea, sore throat and fever, mainly bleeding from many organs. VICE News did a documentary on the Ebola in Liberia from the bush animals like monkeys, etc. These people favor bush meat other than any other meat as it was so tasty for them. No one thinks about Ebola. But, musicians in the country have created some viral songs  about Ebola.In flights like Air Arabia, etc. have made a slip about the prevention of Ebola to the Middle Eastern countries like UAE and KSA if the passengers have travelled to Ebola-stricken countries like West Africa. More than thousands of cases have been reported in the region till now.

Swine flu in India has been reported  from the year 2009 till now.It has been spread mainly from cattle and it is commonly known as H1N1 formerly known as the Spanish flu in America and Europe. It can cause Sore throat, Sneezing, rashes, pain, lack of appetite, diarrhea, etc. Rajasthan was the most infected state with 4,500 cases and 210 deaths while Goa has the least with 7 cases and 1 death. My state Kerala has very low pandemics with 25 cases and 4 deaths.

Lets look at a video (~CREATED USING POWTOON) which explains more about these viruses-

VIRUS PRECAUTIONS IN SURGERY

In Surgeries, people are not allowed to approach a person during surgery as some infection may spread to him/her. The doctors use very new tools while doing surgery as if to prevent infection. Rust (Fe2O3) when poked into the body, can cause Tetanus. So, doctors inject an anti-tetanus which prevent the rusting reaction, i.e.-

Fe+O2 -> Fe2O3

It is a type of Oil which can prevent rusting reaction. It can cause muscle pain, nerve pain, vericose vein, stiffness, involuntary movements, etc.

Anti-tetanus is also called tetanus toxoid injection. It is given every 10 years. It is recommended that you take it in between 10 and 12 years of age. Side effects of the toxoid injection are-

  1. Pain
  2. Fever
  3. Myalgia- Muscle pain can cause with injury, drug-side effects, using a muscle or a group of muscle too much, causing tiredness & Chronic tension
  4. DISCOMFORT
  5. Nausea- Vomiting due to the injection
  6. Syncope- Fainting due to any other reason than head injuries.
  7. Joint pain
  8. Malaise- Uneasiness or discomfort which can be used as a term in English.
  9. Guillane-Barré syndrome- A neurological & muscle disorder which can cause numbness, pain, initially and cause respiratory syndromes, which fails to maintain carbon dioxide and oxygen in blood. It can cause coma, drowsiness, & sleeplessness. Then, it can cause weakness of all muscles in the body. Blood clotting is very vulnerable. It is tested by the spirometry device.
Spirodoc FVC.jpg
Spirometry device

HOTS Questions

  1. Why did I include the topic of ‘tetanus’ in the topic of surgery?
  2. How can Chronic tension cause myalgia?
  3. Why do we apply antiseptic before injecting a medicine?
  4. How can sandstorms cause MersCoV?
  5. Find about the things that certain countries do or naturally have to prevent viruses.

Write in the comments below!!!!

Science Video Post: Chemically safe

Hi guys……..

WELCOME BACK!! After coming back from India, this is my first post I’m going to do. It is all about how to be chemically safe from certain chemicals that we can come in contact with by food, air, or wounds. But these can be only too harmful if taken in very high doses.

July 2015: If you didn’t know that you shouldn’t wear too much gold when you have injuries, make it a practice for you & everyone by spreading this word!!!! It has been a big controversy about Maggi in India. BUT, Why does the FSSAI (Food Safety Society Authority of India) think that the BIGGEST, MOST FAVORITE Snack of the country is dangerous? Read the story below……

It all started in the state of Uttar Pradesh in North India in Barabanki where an officer of the Food & Drug Administration rised suspicions and test dozens of Maggi samples at the central laboratory, Kolkata & state laboratory at Gorakhpur. Gorakhpur laboratory supported Maggi and tried to prove that there was no MSG (Monosodium Glutamate) but it found that there were 17.2 parts/million which was 17 times higher than the normal MSG intake. Maggi also exceeded in the lead amount which exceeded the permissible amount of 2.5 ppm.

Even after so much of controversy, as of August 2015, most of the eastern states of India neglect this controversy while some states are testing and most are banned.

Lead (Pb-Plumbum) is a substance found in pencil nib,etc. It is very dangerous if taken in large amounts. Many small children have the habit of ingesting the pencil nib. If you see any small children eating pencil nibs, please stop them, because the treatment can be very costly and the medicine is really very dangerous.

To learn more about food poisoning, watch the video.

HOTS Questions

  1. How do you get exposed to chemicals like-

a) Gold

b) Lewisite

c) Copper

d) Iron

2. Uranium was a chemical that we couldn’t talk about. Learn situations from the famous Hiroshima bombing, Iraq war (2004) &             the Polygon laid by the Soviet in Kazakhstan. These areas have people with genetic defects. Learn also about the side effect caused         by Uranium.

 

Math Video Posts 1: Geometry

Hi,

Welcome to my first MATH, VIDEO POST!!!! (~CREATED BY PowToon). This is …… like 7th grade geometry which deals with triangles, parallel lines & transversals, which are lines intersecting parallel lines. The worksheet also deals with algebra and geometric properties.

Let’s watch a small clip (made by me):

One thing I forgot to say is about the external angle theorem of the triangles.

If you have a triangle and there is an external angle for it, and you want to find the value of that, what you do is, you must add up the 2 angles other than the vertex of that external angle and you have exactly the magnitude of it. This is because, that external angle is the supplement of the angle of the triangle it is touching. According to the angle sum property, The supplement of that angle will be also equal to the sum of the other two angles, so, you have your answer.

SO, We have some questionzzzzz!~!!

GEOMETRY Q,s ( click on the link )

Hope you enjoy the content!

BYE!!!

Science Video Posts:1

Hi,

Welcome to my FIRST, EVER, VIDEO POST in the blog. Today, we are gonna discuss about what happens to our food in the body.

Now, we know that there are 5 steps involved in the breakdown of food in the body-

1. Ingestion

2. Assimilation (use of simple substances to build complex substances)

3. Digestion

4. Absorption (of nutrients)

5. Egestion (waste removal)

Now, we discuss in this short 5 minute presentation, how food in human is digested.

If you have seen this video, you must wonder that how other animals like cow or even bacteria, digest their food? Well, if you want to know more, check this video on amoeba phagocytosis and rumination.

 

HOTS Question

1. It is known that cold water or holding your breath is a very good remedy for preventing hiccups. How?

2. Mosquitoes spread many diseases. Among them, one of the diseases is spreaded by something. Which?

3. Why does mucus line your nose when sneezing?

4. What has peristalsis got to do with food movement?

5. RESEARCH Q: Why can’t human saliva digest cellulose easily?

 

Enter in the comments below!

Answers: 1

Hi,

Welcome to my first HOTS Questions answer port. This set is applicable for answers for Post 4-5.

Simple Math Post: Linear Equations

1. 5(x-3)=10

(5(x-3))÷5=10÷5=2

x-3+3=2+3=5

x=5

2. 10-3(a+13)=a-9

10-3(a+13)-10=a-9-10=a-19

(-3(a+13))=(a-19)

-3a-39=(a-19)

-3a-39-a=a-19-a

-4a-39=-19

-4a-39+39=-19+39=20

a=20÷-4=-5

3. 9y+1=6y

9y+1-6y=6y-6y

3y+1=0

3y=0-1=-1

y=-1/3

4. 8(10+x)-6=10

8(10+x)-6+6=10+6=16

8(10+x)=16

10+x=16÷8=2

10+x-10=2-10=-8

x=-8

Simple Math Post: Decimals and Fractions

1.  (45/49)×(7/9)÷(((6/10)+(2/3))-((5/6)-(7/9)))

45÷9=5, 49÷7=7

(45/49) × (7/9)=5/7

Then,

LCM of 10 and 3 is 30

So,

((6×3)/(10×3))+((2×10)/(3×10))=18/30 + 20/30=38/30

Then,

LCM of 6 and 9 is 18

S0,

((5×3)/(6×3))-((7×2)/(9×2))=15/18 – 14/18=1/18

Then,

LCM of 18 and 30 is 90

So,

((38×3)/(30×3)) – ((1×5)/(18×5))

114/90 – 5/90= 109/90

Then,

5/7 ÷ 109/90

5/7 × 90/109

=

450/763

2. 0.978 × 9.7512

978 × 97512=95366736

0.978 × 9.7512=9.5366736

3. 0.08624÷0.22

(0.08624×100)÷(0.22×100)

8.624÷22=0.387

Simple Math Post: Linear Equations *1 variable*

Hi,

There are some students who need a lot of help with solving linear equations. As the students enter 7th grade, they have to deal with a lot of equations and how to solve them. Actually, it is easier than it looks!

 

LINEAR EQUATIONS

Now, you have most probably got to see an equation. It is full of x’s, y’s,÷’s, -‘s, +’s and ×’s. But, as I said before, it is easier as it looks. An equation is an expression which has = signs to balance each side. An equation is more like a balancing machine where if 2 mangoes is equal to 100 kg, then you divide both sides by two to get the weight of one mango. 100÷2=50 kg.

In this equation, we have fractions. This can also be written as-

(x÷5)+1/3=4/3

We solve.

x/5 + 1/3 (-1/3)=4/3 (- 1/3)=3/3

x/5=1

x=1×5=5

As you see that in this equation, an extra 1/3 is added to x/5. We must make 1/3 to zero so that we only get x/5. But, we have to balance both equations which can be seen. By subtracting 1/3 from both sides, we get x/5 on the LHS (Left Hand Side) and,

 4/3-1/3=3/3

on the RHS (Right Hand Side). NOW, we have

x/5=1

How do we get x? To get x, you have to multiply by 5 because multiplication is the opposite of division.

x=1×5=5

While solving linear equations, we look at inverse operations. We take the conjugate (/ˈkɒndʒʊɡeɪt/) or inverse operation of the number.

Now you can notice a difference between +, – ,and ×, ÷. When you multiply a fraction

x/d×d=x/1

you always get x/1, the same case when you

x × (d÷d)= x × 1

But, if you have an addition-

x+d

When, you subtract from this, you get

x+d-d=x+0

And,

x-d+d=x-0

This is a very useful property you need to know.

If you have a number and some equation y, and

a(y)=l

First, divide by a.

y=l/a

Then, solve.

The inverse of the operation called root is the exponent.

 IS THE INVERSE OF .

IS THE INVERSE OF 

When you have the same variable or unknown on both sides of the equation-

x-10=2x+29

But, they have different coefficients. So, to remove one x,

x-10-x=2x+29-x

-10=x+29

and then solve for x-

-10-29=x=-39

HOTS Question

1. Solve for x-

5(x-3)=10

2. Solve for a-

10-3(a+13)=a-9

3. Solve for y-

9y+1=6y

4. Solve for x-

8(10+x)-6=10

Simple Math Post: DECIMALS AND FRACTIONS

Hi!

Welcome to my first, simple, math post. This is, as you might have guessed, is a math post for……probably, 5th and 6th graders. But, you have to use your brain a lot! Today’s topic: DECIMALS AND FRACTIONS!

FRACTIONS

Before knowing this, you must know the LCM or the Least Common Multiple is a common number which is the common multiple between two numbers but it is the lowest common factor. There is a really easy way of finding LCM called the DIVISION method.

eg- 12, 18

As you see, you take the two no.s and divide by a common factor. But, if the 2 no.s don’t have a common factor, divide one no. by a prime* factor but leave the other alone. Then, divide the other other by a prime* factor. Umm….don’t forget to multiply the no.s (factors) to get the real LCM.

(*- Must be a factor)

Now, I want you guys to solve questUHNZZZZ….!

” Find the common factors of 243, 273, and 369″

” Find the common factors of 511, 84, and 647″

ADDITION

When it comes to addition of fractions, we quite get to use the LCM. If we want to add 2 fractions…..

……..we only have to find the LCM of and d, the denominators only. Then, we have to multiply both the sides of the fraction such that both denominators have the same fraction. Then, simply add the numerators. But, remember……try to put in the simplest form.

SUBTRACTION

Same comes to subtraction. But, in the second last step, you have to subtract the numerators with the same denominator.

MULTIPLICATION

In this operation, you just have to simply multiply the numerator and denominator. Simplification of the fraction is important.

If you have two fractions and multiply them, it will be like this-

DIVISION

In this simple operation, if you have two fractions a/b and c/d, then, we have to find the reciprocal/ in short words, switch between the numerator and denominator. Then, we get, a/b × d/c = ad/bc

DECIMALS

Now, many students are familiar with decimals, but we’ll go through a simple, short summary-

  • Decimals have places increase by going more to the left. The real decimal places end in ‘ths’

  • In decimal addition/subtraction, we add more zeroes to a decimal place such that the decimal places are equal to the number with more decimal places.
  • In decimal multiplication, we take the two decimal numbers and remove the decimal point from it and normally multiply. In the result, you must count the decimal places to the right in the numbers and add them. Then, start at the result from the right and move the total no. of places you’ve got.
  • In decimal division, you must make the problem into a fraction and multiply both sides by a no. such that the decimal point in the denominator vanishes. Then, divide normally.
  • When you multiply/divide by 10, 100, 1000, etc., you must move the decimal place of the other no. to the left/right by the number of zeroes in the other number.

 

Question

1. Solve

 (45/49)×(7/9)÷(((6/10)+(2/3))-((5/6)-(7/9)))

2. Solve

0.978 × 9.7512

3. Solve

0.08624÷0.22

Put your answers in the comments below! HOPE YOU ENJOY!

Temperature and Heat

Hi,

Welcome to my 3rd post, Heat and temperature. Now, didn’t you want to know that how heat can travel? Simple awesome ways that even acrobats can’t do. Well, if you wanted to know more than this, this is the right place for you!

HEAT

Start this post with a question, ‘What is heat?’.

This is a big concept in Physics. What is heat?, What is the speed of heat?, What are the simple rules of thermodynamics?

Heat is well a type of energy which is calculated in a measures called ‘Joules’ or ‘J‘ which is a measure named by English scientist, James Prescott Joule.

\rm J  = {}\rm \frac{kg \cdot m^2}{s^2} = N \cdot m = \rm Pa \cdot m^3={}\rm W \cdot s = C \cdot V

kg- kilogram, m- metre, s- second, N- Newton, Pa- Pascal, W- Watt, V- Volt, C – Coulomb

James Prescott Joule (1818-1889) is also known for discovering the caloric theory. It states that heat contains a substance called caloric which travels from a hotter body to a cooler body. But, before this was discovered, there was another theory Phlogistion theory (φλογιστόν (phlogistón)-burning up, φλοξ (phlox)- flame) which involved a substance called phlogiston which contains inflammable substances and is released on combustion (burning). German physicist, Johanne Joachim Becher in 1667, created a book called Physica Subterranea which mentioned the phlogiston theory for the first time. The device used to measure the caloric in a particle of heat was called calorimeter. Thus, Joule could create the first joule-measuring machine.

JOULE MEASURING MACHINE
JAMES PRESCOTT JOULE
Johanne Joachim Becher

THERMODYNAMICS

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics which deals with heat and temperature and their link to energy. Thermodynamics has 4 laws, namely –

ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

“If 2 systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other”

Here, there is a system of thermodynamics mentioned here called a thermodynamic system. A thermodynamic system is a macroscopic volume in space, which has walls and surroundings, undergoes thermodynamic processes according to the principles of thermodynamics and it is a physical system which can be described by thermodynamic measures like entropy, internal energy, pressure, etc. Thermodynamic systems are in thermal equilibrium with each other if the natural molecular thermal energy is exchanged without causing a net change in the energy exchange. It acts more like a catalyst.

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

The increase in internal energy of a closed system is equal to the difference of the heat supplied to the system and the work done by it”

The thermodynamical potential of internal energy is mentioned. The increase of internal energy in the closed thermodynamic system can be explained in an equation like this- (W-work, Q- heat supplied in joules)-

ΔU = Q – W

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

“Heat cannot spontaneously flow from a colder location to a hotter location”

We have explained this in caloric theory. This net transfer of heat increases the entropy of heat. The equation for increase in entropy is shown below.

\Delta S = \int \frac{dQ_\text{rev}}T
Q- thermal energy (J), T- absolute temperature, d-differential operator

THIRD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

“As a system approaches absolute zero, the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value”

Absolute zero is a temperature that is equal to -273.15°C or is equal to 0 Kelvin. When a thermodynamic system reaches this value, the entropy of heat reaches a minimum value which decreases the net transfer of heat from a hotter object to a colder object.

SYSTEM MODELS

The thermodynamic system has many types of models, namely-

open, closed, adiabatically isolated, purely diathermically isolated, isolated

There are 5 basises on which the thermodynamic systems are classified, permeable to matter, permeable to energy but not to matter, adiabatic, adynamic and impermeable to matter, and isolation.

Thermodynamic system

POTENTIALS

In thermodynamics, there are 5 thermodynamic potentials.(T– temperature, p-pressure, V-volume, μ- chemical potential, N– number of particles in a system, i-count of particle types in the system) Namely,

Internal energy

It is the energy contained within a thermodynamic system, which excludes the potential and kinetic energy in the system. It is denoted as U.

\int ( T dS - p dV + \sum_i \mu_i dN_i )

Helmholtz free energy

It is a measure of the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature. It is denoted as F

U-TS

Enthalpy

Enthalpy is a potential shown by H. Enthalpy is simply written as-

H = U + pV

Gibbs’ free energy

Gibbs’ free energy is a potential used to measure the usefulness or the process initiating work, obtainable from a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure. It is denoted by G.

U+pV-TS

Landau (Grand) potential

It is the characteristic state function for the grand canonical ensemble, is a type of statistical ensemble (an idealization which has a many virtual copies of a thermodynamic system, considered all at once, each copy representing just the state of what the real system might be in) which is used to represent the possible states of a mechanical system of particles that is being maintained in thermal equilibrium with a reservoir. It is defined by-

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\Phi_{G} \ \stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}\  U - T S - \mu N</p>
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HEAT TRANSFERS

Mainly, there are 3 types of heat transfer, conduction, convection and radiation. Let’s discuss these types one by one-

CONDUCTION

Conduction is a type of heat transfer which can be done through certain types of metals only. These are called conducting materials. Thermal conduction is shown by the constant, k. The heat travels through the atoms of the metal which causes the atoms to vibrate. The vibration will continue on till the end of the metal. It is mostly defined by the equation-

k=W·1/m·1/K

W- watt, m-meter, K-kelvin

According to Fourier’s law-

\overrightarrow{q}  = - k {\nabla} T

\overrightarrow{q} is the heat flux density,  -\nabla T is the temperature gradient

and when it is partially differentiated by x,

q_x  = - k \frac{d T}{d x}

and,

 \frac{\partial Q}{\partial t} = -k \oint_S{{\nabla} T \cdot \,\overrightarrow{dA}}

\big. \frac{\partial Q}{\partial t}\big. is the amount of heat transferred per unit time in W, \overrightarrow{dA} is an oriented surface in m2

CONVECTION

Convection also known as convective circulation is a process of heat transfer where the heat is transferred through the movement of fluids. There are two types of convection,

Natural convection where the fluids move due to the buoyancy forces (floating forces) which is caused by the density variations due to variation of thermal temperature in fluid. When the fluid comes in contact with a hot surface, the molecules will spread out and scatter due to the heat, making it less dense. So, the fluid is displaced and the cooler fluid which have molecules rigid, go down. This is a phenomenon called the convection/Bénard cell which happens due to the density differences between a body, liquid or gas .  Hence, the Second law of thermodynamics is fulfilled. The best example is sea breeze where the cold air from the sea goes to a hotter surface (land) and rises. Then, the fluid becomes cooler and sinks to the sea.

Forced convection where a fluid is forced to make a convection current using modern-day technology like fans, A/C’s etc.

Here also, the Fourier series applies. The solution to the Fourier series was created by Isaac Newton called the ‘Newton’s law of cooling’

{ \frac{d Q}{d t} = h \cdot A \cdot (  T(t)-T_{\text{env}}) = h \cdot A \Delta T(t)\quad }

is the heat transfer coefficient, is the heat transfer surface area, T_{\text{env}} is the environment temperature

Isaac Newton gave a solution to this equation

 \frac{d T(t)}{d t} = \frac{d\Delta T(t)}{d t} = - \frac{1}{t_0} \Delta T(t)\quad

Rayleigh-Bénard convection is a natural convection which happens due to the fluid developing a continuous pattern of Bénard cells. Gravity and Buoyancy are the main reasons for this phenomena.

Convection cells in a gravity field
Simulation of Rayleigh-Benard convection in 3D

RADIATION

Radiation, is another mode of energy transfer. First, we’ll talk about this in general.

Radiation is a type of energy transfer where the energy transfers in the form of waves or particles. This type of energy transfer is divided into mainly types.

Ionizing radiation is a type of radiation which is done by highly-sufficient radiation to ionize atoms. In short, ionization is a process where the atom acquires a negative or positive charge so that an ion is created. Here, there is lower-energy damage actions happening like breaking chemical bonds between atoms. This ionization is done by knocking out electrons from the shell. If the source of the ionizing radiation comes from a radioactive material or nuclear processes, there is particle radiation (Radiation of energy by means of fast-moving subatomic particles). There are many types of ionizing radiation such as X-ray, Ultraviolet, γ (photon size-3×10−11 meters), β (emission of electrons and positrons), and α (helium 2 proton, 2 neutron).

Non-ionizing radiation has very small kinetic energy particles to do the ionization process. The main type of non-ionizing radiation is electromagnetic radiation which have the photons having only the sufficient energy to change the rotation, vibration, etc. A very common phenomena due to electromagnetic radiation is the spectrum. 

This observation first discovered by the ancient Greeks shows that white light comprises of the colors of the rainbow (VIBGYOR).

Ionizing radiation

Information notes-

Ionization is another important topic which we need to learn if we want to learn all about radiation. We gave a simple definition of it. Another big question is the production of ions. They are produced by supplying sufficient energy to an electron which is bound to some other charged substance (positrons, ions, etc.). The amount of this energy is known as the ionization potential. Adiabatic ionization is a process where an electron is removed from/added to the molecule or atom in its lowest energy state and replaced with an ion in its lowest energy state. Townsend avalanche is a very good example of ionization where an electron is replaced with a positive ion.

Townsend avalanche

Tunnel ionization is an ionization which happens due to quantum tunneling. But, unlike normal ionization, this allows the electron to just pass through the potential barrier instead of having sufficient energy. The probability of this type of passage ‘exponentially’ depends on its width. A high energy electron passing can make through it easily but the barrier becomes thinner. This can be done when an atom/molecule interacts with the near infrared strong near laser pauses. This process is understood as a  process which has a bounded electron, through the absorption of more than 1 photon from the laser field is ionized. This big picture is called multiphoton ionization (MPI). The rate of MPI on an atom which has ionization potential   E_i  in a linearly polarized laser with angular frequency   \omega  \gamma= \frac{\omega F}{\sqrt {2E_i}}  is the Keldysh (Leonid Keldysh) adiabaticity parameter,   n^{*}=\sqrt{2E_i}/Z^{2} is the peak electric field of laser,  l^{*}=n^{*}-1 , and the coefficients of this equation –

 f_{lm}= \frac{(2l+1)(l+|m|)^{!}}{2^{m}|m|^{!}(l-|m|)^{!}}  g(\gamma)=\frac{3}{2\gamma} (1+\frac{1}{2\gamma^{2}}\sinh^{-1}(\gamma)-\frac{\sqrt{1+\gamma^{2}}}{2\gamma})|C_{n^{*}l^{*}}|^{2}= \frac{2^{2n^{*}}}{n^{*}\Gamma(n^{*}+l^{*}+1)\Gamma(n^{*}l^{*})}

 A_{m}(\omega, \gamma)=\frac{4}{3\pi}\frac{1}{|m|^{!}}\frac{\gamma^{2}}{1+\gamma^{2}}\sum_{n>v}^{\infty}w_{m}(\sqrt{\frac{2\gamma}{\sqrt{1+\gamma^{2}}}(n-v)}e^{-(n-v)\alpha(\gamma)}), and also,
 w_{m}(x)=e^{-x^{2}}\int_0^x (x^2-y^2)^m e^{y^2}\,dy  \alpha(\gamma)= 2(\sinh^{-1}(\gamma)-\frac{\gamma}{\sqrt{1+\gamma^{2}}}) v= \frac{E_i}{\omega}(1+\frac{2}{\gamma^{2}})
The equation is-
 W_{PPT}=|C_{n^{*}l^{*}}|^{2}\sqrt{\frac{6}{\pi}}f_{lm}E_{i}(2(2E_i)^{\frac{3}{2}}/F)^{n^{*2}-|m|-3/2}(1+\gamma)^{2})^{|m/2|+3/4}A_{m}(\omega, \gamma)e^{-(2(2E_i)^{\frac{3}{2}}/F)g(\gamma)}

Like that, we have the quasi-static tunnel ionization shown by the ADK model. It is shown by-

 W_{ADK}=|C_{n^{*}l^{*}}|^{2}\sqrt{\frac{6}{\pi}}f_{lm}E_{i}(2(2E_i)^{\frac{3}{2}}/F)^{n^{*2}-|m|-3/2}e^{-(2(2E_i)^{\frac{3}{2}}/3F)}

The normal ionization rate is shown by the PPT model-

 U_p  is the ponderomotive energy,  J_{n} (u, v)  is the double Bessel function,   n_{i} =E_i/\omega ,  n_\mathrm{osc} = U_{p} / \omega  N=[n_i + n_\mathrm{osc}]  is the min. no. of photons necessary to ionize the atoms,   p = \sqrt{ 2 \omega (n-n_\mathrm{osc}- n_i)} ,  n_{f} = 2 \sqrt { n_\mathrm{osc} / \omega} p cos(\theta)  \theta  is the angle between momentum of electron, and the electric field of the laser, FT, 3D Fourier transform.  I_{KAR} = (\frac {2 Z^2}{n^2 F r})^n  incorporates the Coulomb correction in the SFA model. The equation is-

 W_{KRA}= \sum_{n=N}^{n=\infty} 2 \pi \omega^{2} p (n-n_\mathrm{osc})^2 \int d \Omega |FT (I_{KAR} \Psi ( \mathbf{r}))|^2 J_n^2 (n_f, \frac{n_\mathrm{osc}}{2})

Thermal radiation is a non-ionizing radiation which is the emission of electromagnetic waves from all matter which has temperature greater the absolute zero temperature (0k). This has the kinetic energy of the random movement of molecules and atoms in matter which contain charged particles which also have kinetic interaction with each other. There are 4 main properties for thermal radiation-

1. Thermal radiation emitted by a body at different temperatures has a wide range of frequencies. This frequency distribution is shown by Planck’s law of black body radiation which states that if  B_\nu is the spectral radiance of the body, is the absolute temperature, kB is the Boltzmann constant, is the speed of light, and is the Planck constant- (\nu is the frequency)

B_\nu(\nu, T) = \frac{ 2 h \nu^3}{c^2} \frac{1}{e^\frac{h\nu}{k_\mathrm{B}T} - 1}

and in terms of wavelength λ-

B_\lambda(\lambda, T) =\frac{2 hc^2}{\lambda^5}\frac{1}{ e^{\frac{hc}{\lambda k_\mathrm{B}T}} - 1}

There are different forms in which this can be portrayed.

2. The frequency range of the emitted radiation shifts to higher frequencies when the temperature of the emitter increases. The term white hot due to further heating of the emitter causing to change to high frequencies (color) and it appears white to the human eye. Even if an object is white hot, 99% of it will be infrared just like red hot substances. This is explained by the Wien’s displacement law which states that the black body radiation curve for different temperatures peaks at a wavelength (λ) inversely proportional to the temperature. That wavelength λmax is given by-

\lambda_\text{max}  = \frac{b}{T}

Where is the Wien’s displacement constant.

3. The total amount of radiation increases as the frequency rises. It grows as T4, where is the absolute temperature in Kelvin. The Stefan-Boltzmann law states that when   j^{\star} is the total energy radiated per unit surface area of a black body at all wavelengths per unit time, and σ is the Stefan Boltzmann constant-

 j^{\star} = \sigma T^{4}.

4. The rate of electromagnetic radiation emitted at a given frequency is proportional to the amount of absorption that it would experience by the source. This is very applicable to all properties of wave.

The radiative energy of heat (black body) is shown by an equation if F_{A \rarr B} is the proportion of radiation which leaves and strikes B

 \dot{Q}_{1 \rightarrow 2} = \sigma A_{1}F_{1 \rightarrow 2}(T_1^4-T_2^4) \!

And, for a grey body, if \epsilon (with a base A) are the emmisitives of a surface A,

 \dot{Q}= \dfrac{\sigma(T_1^4-T_2^4)}{\dfrac{1-\epsilon_1}{A_1\epsilon_1}+ \dfrac{1}{A_1F_{1 \rightarrow 2}}+ \dfrac{1-\epsilon_2}{A_2\epsilon_2}}

Combustion

Another important topic in Thermodynamics is combustion more commonly known as burning. It happens like this-

2H2(g)+O2(g)→2H2O (g) 

Temperature

Well?! What’s temperature got to do with it? Everyone knows that ‘It is the scale of how hot or cold an object is.’. But, there are different scales of temperature that you need to know. The Fahrenheit scale (used in US, Carribean) was discovered by Polish born German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. Also, there was another physicist called Anders from Sweden (UPPSALAN) who created the Celsius scale. Yeah, Anders Celsius. He was an astronomer, mathematician and physicist. An English Physicist called William Thomson created the K scale. You’re right! The Kelvin created by the 1st  Baron Kelvin, William Thomson. This thing had kind of circulated worldwide, another Danish physicist called Ole Christensen Rømer created the Rømer scale which was inaccurate and Fahrenheit had to multiply those values by 4 to get the Fahrenheit measurements. But, Ole’s thermometer was better in case of safety.

Romer
Lord Kelvin
Fahrenheit
Celsius

ALCOHOL AND MERCURY THERMOMETERS

Before understanding this, you must understand the NFPA 704 Table for chemical substances. There are basises on which each chemical is categorized.

NFPA 704 Diamond

The BLUE Part of the diamond denotes health. The number indicates that there is no health hazard and as the number increases to 4, the health hazards increase.

The RED part denotes Inflammability. The number shows less inflammability and as it increases to 4, inflammability increases.

The YELLOW part denotes Instability/Reactivity. shows less instability and reactivity.

The WHITE part is a place for special symbols like-

OX- It is an oxidizer which makes it burn easily without air supply

W- The chemical reacts with water in a strange manner.

SA Simple Asphyxiant gas which reduces Oxygen and is non-toxic

COR- Corrosive

ACID, ALK (Alkaline)

Biohazard symbol.svg or BIO- Biological Hazard

POI- Poisonous

RAD or Radiation warning symbol2.svg-Radioactive

CRYO- Cryogenic

Now, we learn about the chemicals we use in thermometers-

Mercury (Hg) or quicksilver is a chemical which has an NFPA 704 diamond of-

It can measure temperatures from -38.87to 356.58C. It doesn’t stick to glass. It is silvery, grey in color. It stays at liquid for a wide range of temperatures, too.

Pouring liquid mercury bionerd.jpg

Another chemical used is Ethanol (C2H6O) which is a group of chemicals called alcohol. 

Although it can only measure upto 78 C, it can achieve even lower temperatures than alcohol like -115C.

Alcohol is more commonly used in lab thermometers due to the red color. These lab thermometers can measure from -10C, to 110C. They consist of a large, thin glass tube which protects the alcohol.

Whereas clinical thermometer can measure only from 94F (35C) to 106F (42C) and is mainly mercury. It has a construction called kink which is shaped like a circle and prevents the mercury from falling back down so, the people can measure it.

Thermos Flask

A major invention by Sir James Dewar from Scotland was the thermos flask which prevented heat loss by all 3 modes of heat transfer. It has insulating materials for the outer cover to prevent conduction heat loss. There is also vacuum which does this. It has no air molecules in it so heat loss by convection is prevented. The highly reflective surface disables radiation.

HOTS Question

1. Arun has 2 thermometers before him. He wants the safer one. Suggest and give reason. The thermometers are given below.

SpiritTherm02.jpg

2. Explain more how the thermos flask prevents heat loss.

3. Why does your doctor say ‘Handle carefully‘ when he keeps a thermometer in your mouth to check fever?

4. Explain convection in sea breeze and the thermodynamic law that is observable in this.

5. Why do the different colors of spectrum go in different directions?

Give your answers in the comments below!