If you have connection with my account you might have seen my videos on Chemicals and Chemical Changes. Today, I’m going to explain these in detail. Actually, if you have observed science, you might think that Chemistry is the favorite subject of the students as we can like..”play” with the substances and see what change happens. Many people might ask the etymology (word evolution), it is derived from ‘alchemy’ from Arabic ‘الكيمياء’ al-keemee’a, which again derives from Greek, “χημία” which means the study of different natural substances, from which artificial things can be made.
There are almost 117 known ‘elements’ in the periodic table. The reason why I bolded the word ‘element’ is to remove the confusion between compounds and elements. The chemicals are not evolved from any other element but exists on its own. For example, Hydrogen (H) cannot be evolved from oxygen (O). There are substances that always exist in many atoms of one element as they have to adjust the number of electrons in the atom. Speaking of the atom, let’s analyze its structure of an atom….
Protons & Neutrons
Protons & Neutrons are the main things that are mainly of +ve and neutral charges respectively. As protons have a positive charge, (same charge), they are more likely to repel against each other as same as the law of magnetism which says that “opposite charges attract and same charges repel”. It is due to the electric charges. To prevent the strong repulsion which can result in the destruction of the whole atom, neutral charges are placed in between the atoms called neutrons. The number of protons and neutrons are equal. Inside a proton, there is are quarks which can be divided into 6 flavors : up, down, charm, strange, top and bottom which can be given different colors. Each quark is joined by a gluon. There are divided into the category of particle physics called fermionic. They also have electric charge, color charge and spinning power. There are 2 quarks above and 1 below. This theory was created by Murray-Gell-Mann & George Zweig in 1964. The protons and neutrons are known as the nucleus.
Electrons are the main structures that are rotating outside the nucleus of the atom. They have a -ve charge and are the main causes of electricity. They are described as restless as they move restlessly around the atom. They are also equal to the protons as if to make the total charge of the atom neutral. They have very awesome properties like electromagnetism!!! Electromagnetism is a property where the electricity is used to make magnetism. The facility can be seen in usual door bells which have the typical ‘ting’ sound.
When you click on the button, a negative charge is sent down the wires which is charged up by a battery and goes up to a plate to fill it up with a negative charge. The plate attracts a positively charged hammer and the hammer swings with so much force that a sound is formed. When you see that the electricity that the electricity from the battery reached the plate, there was magnetism. This is called electromagnetism.
Shells of an atom
An atom contains shells with a certain number of electrons. The list is given below.
If any of a count is missing, an atom joins another atom with the desirable amount of electrons which is called covalent bonding.
To know more about these, watch the video-
How would you react after seeing this?
Some ferocious chemical might be just playing around……
IMAGINARY CHEMICAL HEALTH- 4, the chemical is very dangerous and can cause very major injury or death on very simple contact
INFLAMMABILITY- 4, the chemical is very inflammable and can catch fire in seconds in contact with the atmosphere
REACTIVITY- 4, the chemical is very instable and has even higher reactivity than potassium, the most reactive chemical in the world
W– The chemical, due to its high instability, can react to water in a very weird way
OX- Oxidizer, it can increase the electrons in the atom
Let’s read a chips packet and analyze these chemicals…
It is a chemical naturally found in apples which can be used as a food additive which can increase the sourness of a food item.
Lactic Acid- C12H22O11
This is an acid mainly found in milk. It is derived from Glucose.
Citric Acid- C6H8O7
It is also a sour additive which is found naturally in orange, lemon and other citrus fruits.
It is a polysaccharide which is made from corn using partial hydrolysis, a process which involves the breaking down a molecule by water.
To learn about some important chemicals, check out the video!!!
- Which of these chemicals can be used in a hot air balloon? Give reason.
a) Hydrogen, b) Xeon, c) Oxygen, d) Helium
2. Which is the lightest metal in the periodic table? What is its weight?
3. Taste these things….Are they acid or basic?
a) Grapes, b) Soap, c) Orange
4. If water is acid, it helps in the growth of germs, while if it is alkaline [basic] it is good for your body.
If possible, try to take a pH paper and test the pH of the water and judge which is the best brand of water.
5. How does curdling of milk happen?
Put answers in the comments below!!!